Misinformation, disinformation, and “fake news” have been used as a means of influence for millennia, but the proliferation of the internet and social media in the 21st century has enabled nefarious campaigns to achieve unprecedented scale, speed, precision, and effectiveness. In the past few years, there has been significant recognition of the threats posed by malign influence operations to geopolitical relations, democratic institutions and processes, public health and safety, and more. At the same time, the digitization of communication offers tremendous opportunities for human language technologies (HLT) to observe, interpret, and understand this publicly available content. The ability to infer intent and impact, however, remains much more elusive.