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A least mean squares approach of iterative array calibration for scalable digital phased array radar panels

Published in:
2013 IEEE Int. Symp. On Phased Array Systems and Technology, 15-18 October 2013.
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Summary

This paper describes a semiautonomous approach to calibrate a phased array system, with particular use on an S-band aperture that is being developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Each element of the array is controlled by an independent digital phase shifter, whose control signal may be uniquely defined. As active electronically steerable arrays (AESAs) continually evolve towards mostly digital paradigms that will support real-time computing, as opposed to look-up table approaches, then adaptive calibration approaches may be pursued for maximum AESA performance. This calibration work is being completed as one component of Lincoln Laboratory's effort within the multifunction phased array radar (MPAR) initiative.
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Summary

This paper describes a semiautonomous approach to calibrate a phased array system, with particular use on an S-band aperture that is being developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Each element of the array is controlled by an independent digital phase shifter, whose control signal may be uniquely defined. As active electronically...

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A method for improved cross-pol isolation based on the use of auxiliary elements

Published in:
2013 IEEE Int. Symp. On Phased Array Systems and Technology, 15-18 October 2013.

Summary

This paper describes a method to answer the following questions: can several of the elements of a phased array be employed as auxiliary (AUX) elements and how can the phase of each be adjusted so that the (1) cross-polarization (cross-pol) isolation is minimized to 40 dB, (2) the sidelobe levels of the main lobe are minimally impacted, and (3) the width and height of the main lobe are minimally impacted? This calibration work is being completed as one component of Lincoln Laboratory's effort within the multifunction phased array radar (MPAR) initiative. Devoting a few of the elements to serve as the AUX channels to specifically operate to mitigate the effects of the cross-pol influence, the distributed sidelobe levels will not suffer much impact; yet, the impact of the AUX elements will have deepened the cross-pol isolation at the peak of the co-polar beam can occur because the AUX elements can achieve a high degree of narrowband angular resolution.
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Summary

This paper describes a method to answer the following questions: can several of the elements of a phased array be employed as auxiliary (AUX) elements and how can the phase of each be adjusted so that the (1) cross-polarization (cross-pol) isolation is minimized to 40 dB, (2) the sidelobe levels...

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On the development of a tileable LRU for the NextGen surveillance and weather radar capability program

Published in:
2013 IEEE Int. Symp. On Phased Array Systems and Technology, 15-18 October 2013.

Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory is working towards the development of a tileable radar panel to satisfy multimission needs. A combination of custom and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) have been developed and/or employed to achieve the required system functionality. The integrated circuits (ICs) are integrated into a low cost T/R module compatible with commercial printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Sixty-four of the transmit/receive (T/R) modules are integrated onto the aperture PCB in an 8x8 lattice. In addition to the T/R elements, the aperture PCB incorporates transmit and receive beamformers, power and logic distribution, and radiating elements. The aperture PCB is coupled with a backplane PCB to form a panel, the line replaceable unit (LRU) for the multifunction phased array radar (MPAR) initiative. This report summarizes the evaluation of the second iteration LRU aperture PCB and T/R element. Support fixturing was developed and paired with the panel to enable backplane functionality sufficient to support the test objective.
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Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory is working towards the development of a tileable radar panel to satisfy multimission needs. A combination of custom and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) have been developed and/or employed to achieve the required system functionality. The integrated circuits (ICs) are integrated into a low...

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An improved gust front detection algorithm for the TDWR

Published in:
25th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Paris, France, 24-28 June 1991, pp. J37-J42.

Summary

Gust fronts are associated with potentially hazardous wind shears and cause sustained wind shifts after passage. Terminal Air Traffic Control (ATC) is concerned about the safety hazard associated with shear regions and prediction of the wind shift for runway reconfiguration. The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system has a gust front detection algorithm which has provided an operationally useful capability for both safety and planning. However, this algorithm's performance is sensitive to the orientation of the gust front with respect to the radar radial. Due to this sensitivity, the algorithm is unable to detect about 50% of gust fronts that cross the airport. This paper describes a new algorithm which provides improved performance by using additional radar signatures of gust fronts. The performance of the current TDWR gust front algorithm for the various operational demonstrations has been documented in Klingle-Wilson et al. (1989) and Evans (1990). These analyses highlighted deficiencies in the current algorithm, which is designed to detect radial convergent shears only. When gust fronts or portions of gust fronts become aligned nearly parallel to a radial, the radial component of the shear is not as readily evident. In addition, gust fronts that are near or over the radar exhibit little radial convergence along their lengths and ground clutter can obscure the gust front near the radar. Thus, special handling is needed for fronts that approach the radar. Figure 1 illustrates the various components of a gust front as viewed by Doppler radar. The portion of the gust front in the figure labelled radial convergence is detectable with the current algorithm. Fronts, or portions of fronts, that are aligned along the radar radial and those that pass over the radar are examples of events which can exhibit little or no radial shear signature. These events are often detectable by variations in the radial velocities from azimuth to azimuth (i.e., azimuthal shear)., and/or by radar reflectivity thins lines. The new algorithm improves the detection and prediction of gust fronts by merging radial convergence features with azimuthal shear features, thin line features, and the predicted locations of gust fronts which are passing over the radar. The next four sections of this paper describe the individual components of the improved algorithm. Section 6 describes the rule base used to combine detections from the four components into single gust front detections and Section 7 discusses the output of the algorithm.
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Summary

Gust fronts are associated with potentially hazardous wind shears and cause sustained wind shifts after passage. Terminal Air Traffic Control (ATC) is concerned about the safety hazard associated with shear regions and prediction of the wind shift for runway reconfiguration. The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system has a gust...

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