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Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Explosive Compound Classes on a Single Instrument via Flow-Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Summary

A flow-injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA MSMS) method was developed for rapid quantitative analysis of 10 different inorganic and organic explosives. Performance is optimized by tailoring the ionization method (APCI/ESI), de-clustering potentials, and collision energies for each specific analyte. In doing so, a single instrument can be used to detect urea nitrate, potassium chlorate, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine, triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylene triperoxide diamine, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, nitroglycerin, and octohy-dro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine with sensitivities all in the picogram per milliliter range. In conclusion, FIA APCI/ESI MSMS is a fast (<1 min/sample), sensitive (~pg/mL LOQ), and precise (intraday RSD < 10%) method for trace explosive detection that can play an important role in criminal and attributional forensics, counterterrorism, and environmental protection areas, and has the potential to augment or replace several of the existing explosive detection methods.
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Summary

A flow-injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA MSMS) method was developed for rapid quantitative analysis of 10 different inorganic and organic explosives. Performance is optimized by tailoring the ionization method (APCI/ESI), de-clustering potentials, and collision energies for each specific analyte. In doing so, a single instrument can be used to...

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Optical Nondestructive Dynamic Measurements of Wafer-Scale Encapsulated Nanofluidic Channels

Published in:
Applied Optics, vol. 57, no. 15

Summary

Nanofluidic channels are of great interest for DNA sequencing, chromatography, and drug delivery. However, metrology of embedded or sealed nanochannels and measurement of their fill-state have remained extremely challenging. Existing techniques have been restricted to optical microscopy, which suffers from insufficient resolution, or scanning electron microscopy, which cannot measure sealed or embedded channels without cleaving the sample. Here, we demonstrate a novel method for accurately extracting nanochannel cross-sectional dimensions and monitoring fluid filling, utilizing spectroscopic ellipsometric scatterometry, combined with rigorous electromagnetic simulations. Our technique is capable of measuring channel dimensions with better than 5-nm accuracy and assessing channel filling within seconds. The developed technique is, thus, well suited for both process monitoring of channel fabrication as well as for studying complex phenomena of fluid flow through nanochannel structures.
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Summary

Nanofluidic channels are of great interest for DNA sequencing, chromatography, and drug delivery. However, metrology of embedded or sealed nanochannels and measurement of their fill-state have remained extremely challenging. Existing techniques have been restricted to optical microscopy, which suffers from insufficient resolution, or scanning electron microscopy, which cannot measure sealed...

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Highly Efficient All-Optical Beam Modulation Utilizing Thermo-optic Effects

Summary

Suspensions of plasmonic nanoparticles can diffract optical beams due to the combination of thermal lensing and self-phase modulation. Here, we demonstrate extremely efficient optical continuous wave (CW) beam switching across the visible range in optimized suspensions of 5-nm Au and Ag nanoparticles in non-polar solvents, such as hexane and decane. On-axis modulation of greater than 30 dB is achieved at incident beam intensities as low as 100 W/cm2 with response times under 200 μs, at initial solution transparency above 70%. No evidence of laser-induced degradation is observed for the highest intensities used. Numerical modeling of experimental data reveals thermo-optic coefficients of up to −1.3 × 10−3 /K, which, to our knowledge, is the highest observed to date in such nanoparticle suspensions.
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Summary

Suspensions of plasmonic nanoparticles can diffract optical beams due to the combination of thermal lensing and self-phase modulation. Here, we demonstrate extremely efficient optical continuous wave (CW) beam switching across the visible range in optimized suspensions of 5-nm Au and Ag nanoparticles in non-polar solvents, such as hexane and decane...

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Microsputterer with Integrated Ion-Drag Focusing for Additive Manufacturing of Thin, Narrow Conductive Lines(3.14 MB)

Published in:
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 16

Summary

We report the design, modelling, and proof-of-concept demonstration of a continuously fed, atmospheric-pressure microplasma metal sputterer that is capable of printing conductive lines narrower than the width of the target without the need for post-processing or lithographic patterning. Ion drag-induced focusing is harnessed to print narrow lines; the focusing mechanism is modelled via COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and validated with experiments. A microplasma sputter head with gold target is constructed and used to deposit imprints with minimum feature sizes as narrow as 9 µm, roughness as small as 55 nm, and electrical resistivity as low as 1.1 µΩ centerdot m.
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Summary

We report the design, modelling, and proof-of-concept demonstration of a continuously fed, atmospheric-pressure microplasma metal sputterer that is capable of printing conductive lines narrower than the width of the target without the need for post-processing or lithographic patterning. Ion drag-induced focusing is harnessed to print narrow lines; the focusing mechanism...

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Large-format Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays and readout circuits

Published in:
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., Vol. 24, No. 2, March/April 2018, 3800510.

Summary

Over the past 20 years, we have developed arrays of custom-fabricated silicon and InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays, CMOS readout circuits to digitally count or time stamp single-photon detection events, and techniques to integrate these two components to make back-illuminated solid-state image sensors for lidar, optical communications, and passive imaging. Starting with 4 × 4 arrays, we have recently demonstrated 256 × 256 arrays, and are working to scale to megapixel-class imagers. In this paper, we review this progress and discuss key technical challenges to scaling to large format.
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Summary

Over the past 20 years, we have developed arrays of custom-fabricated silicon and InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays, CMOS readout circuits to digitally count or time stamp single-photon detection events, and techniques to integrate these two components to make back-illuminated solid-state image sensors for lidar, optical communications, and passive imaging...

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Key Challenges and Prospects for Optical Standoff Trace Detection of Explosives

Published in:
Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 100

Summary

Sophisticated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) challenge the capabilities of current sensors, particularly in areas away from static checkpoints. This security gap could be filled by standoff chemical sensors that detect IEDs based on external trace explosive residues. Unfortunately, previous efforts have not led to widely deployed capabilities. Crucially, the physical morphology of trace explosive residues and chemical “clutter” present unique challenges to the operational performance of standoff sensors. In this review, an overview of standoff trace explosive detection systems is provided in the context of these unique challenges. Tradespace analysis is performed for two popular standoff detection methods: longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging and deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. The tradespace analysis method described in this review incorporates realistic trace explosive residues and background clutter into the technology development process. The review predicts system performance and areas where additional research is needed for these two technologies to optimize performance.
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Summary

Sophisticated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) challenge the capabilities of current sensors, particularly in areas away from static checkpoints. This security gap could be filled by standoff chemical sensors that detect IEDs based on external trace explosive residues. Unfortunately, previous efforts have not led to widely deployed capabilities. Crucially, the physical...

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MOVPE growth of LWIR AlInAs/GaInAs/InP quantum cascade lasers: impact of growth and material quality on laser performance

Summary

The quality of epitaxial layers in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has a primary impact on QCL performance, and establishing correlations between epitaxial growth and materials properties is of critical importance for continuing improvements. We present an overview of the growth challenges of these complex QCL structures; describe the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth of AlInAs/GaInAs/InP QCL materials; discuss materials properties that impact QCL performance; and investigate various QCL structure modifications and their effects on QCL performance. We demonstrate uncoated buried-heterostructure 9.3-um QCLs with 1.32-W continuous-wave output power and maximum wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 6.8%. This WPE is more than 50% greater than previously reported WPEs for unstrained QCLs emitting at 8.9 um and only 30% below strained QCLs emitting around 9.2 um.
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Summary

The quality of epitaxial layers in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has a primary impact on QCL performance, and establishing correlations between epitaxial growth and materials properties is of critical importance for continuing improvements. We present an overview of the growth challenges of these complex QCL structures; describe the metalorganic vapor...

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Photonic lantern kW-class fiber amplifier

Published in:
Opt. Express, Vol. 25, No. 22, 30 October 2017, pp. 27543-27550.

Summary

Pump-limited kW-class operation in a multimode fiber amplifier using adaptive mode control and a photonic lantern front end was achieved. An array of three single-mode fiber inputs was used to adaptively inject the appropriate superposition of input modes in a three-mode gain fiber to achieve the desired mode at the output. Mode fluctuations at high power were compensated by adjusting the relative phase, amplitude, and polarization of the single-mode fiber inputs. The outlook for further power scaling and adaptive-optic compensation is described.
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Summary

Pump-limited kW-class operation in a multimode fiber amplifier using adaptive mode control and a photonic lantern front end was achieved. An array of three single-mode fiber inputs was used to adaptively inject the appropriate superposition of input modes in a three-mode gain fiber to achieve the desired mode at the...

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Bioelectronic measurement and feedback control of molecules in living cells

Published in:
Sci. Rep., Vol. 7, No. 1, 2 October 2017, 12511.

Summary

We describe an electrochemical measurement technique that enables bioelectronic measurements of reporter proteins in living cells as an alternative to traditional optical fluorescence. Using electronically programmable microfluidics, the measurement is in turn used to control the concentration of an inducer input that regulates production of the protein from a genetic promoter. The resulting bioelectronic and microfluidic negative-feedback loop then serves to regulate the concentration of the protein in the cell. We show measurements wherein a user-programmable set-point precisely alters the protein concentration in the cell with feedback-loop parameters affecting the dynamics of the closed-loop response in a predictable fashion. Our work does not require expensive optical fluorescence measurement techniques that are prone to toxicity in chronic settings, sophisticated time-lapse microscopy, or bulky/expensive chemo-stat instrumentation for dynamic measurement and control of biomolecules in cells. Therefore, it may be useful in creating a: cheap, portable, chronic, dynamic, and precise all-electronic alternative for measurement and control of molecules in living cells.
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Summary

We describe an electrochemical measurement technique that enables bioelectronic measurements of reporter proteins in living cells as an alternative to traditional optical fluorescence. Using electronically programmable microfluidics, the measurement is in turn used to control the concentration of an inducer input that regulates production of the protein from a genetic...

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Flexible glucose sensors and fuel cells for bioelectronic implants

Published in:
IEEE 60th Int. Midwest Symp. on Circuits and Systems, MWSCAS, 6-9 August 2017.

Summary

Microfabrication techniques were developed to create flexible 24 um thick glucose sensors on polyimide substrates. Measurements of the sensor performance, recorded as voltage potential, were carried out for a range of glucose concentrations (0 – 8 mM) in physiological saline (0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.4). The sensors show rapid response times (seconds to stable potential) and good sensitivity in the 0 – 4 mM range. Additionally, we demonstrate that the sensors can operate as fuel cells, generating peak power levels up to 0.94 uW/cm2. Such flexible devices, which can be rolled up to increase surface area within a fixed volume, may enable ultra-low-power bio-electronic implants for glucose sensing or glucose energy harvesting in the future.
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Summary

Microfabrication techniques were developed to create flexible 24 um thick glucose sensors on polyimide substrates. Measurements of the sensor performance, recorded as voltage potential, were carried out for a range of glucose concentrations (0 – 8 mM) in physiological saline (0.1 M NaCl, pH 7.4). The sensors show rapid response...

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