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Broadband magnetometry and temperature sensing with a light-trapping diamond waveguide

Published in:
Nature Phys. Lett., Vol. 11, May 2015, pp. 393-7.

Summary

Solid-state quantum sensors are attracting wide interest because of their sensitivity at room temperature. In particular, the spin properties of individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond make them outstanding nanoscale sensors of magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature under ambient conditions. Recent work on NV ensemble-based magnetometers, inertial sensors, and clocks has employed unentangled colour centres to realize significant improvements in sensitivity. However, to achieve this potential sensitivity enhancement in practice, new techniques are required to excite efficiently and to collect the optical signal from large NV ensembles. Here, we introduce a light-trapping diamond waveguide geometry with an excitation efficiency and signal collection that enables in excess of 5% conversion efficiency of pump photons into optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) fluorescence--an improvement over previous single-pass geometries of more than three orders of magnitude. This marked enhancement of the ODMR signal enables precision broadband measurements of magnetic field and temperature in the low-frequency range, otherwise inaccessible by dynamical decoupling techniques.
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Summary

Solid-state quantum sensors are attracting wide interest because of their sensitivity at room temperature. In particular, the spin properties of individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond make them outstanding nanoscale sensors of magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature under ambient conditions. Recent work on NV ensemble-based magnetometers, inertial sensors...

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Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) - new capability in the CoSMIR/CoSSIR scanhead

Published in:
2015 IEEE Aerospace Conf., 7-14 March 2015.

Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have teamed to adapt an existing instrument platform, the CoSMIR/CoSSIR system for atmospheric sensing, to develop and demonstrate a new capability in a hyperspectral microwave atmospheric sounder (HyMAS). This new sensor comprises a highly innovative intermediate frequency processor (IFP), that provides the filtering and digitization of 52 radiometric channels and the interoperable remote component (IRC) adapted to CoSMIR, CoSSIR, and HyMAS that stores and archives the data with time tagged calibration and navigation data. The first element of the work is the demonstration of a hyperspectral microwave receiver subsystem that was recently shown using a comprehensive simulation study to yield performance that substantially exceeds current state-of-the-art. Hyperspectral microwave sounders with ~100 channels offer temperature and humidity sounding improvements similar to those obtained when infrared sensors became hyperspectral. Hyperspectral microwave operation is achieved using independent RF antenna/receiver arrays that sample the same area/volume of the Earth's surface/atmosphere at slightly different frequencies and therefore synthesize a set of dense, finely spaced vertical weighting functions. The second, enabling element is the development of a compact 52-channel Intermediate Frequency processor module. A principal challenge of a hyperspectral microwave system is the size of the IF filter bank required for channelization. Large bandwidths are simultaneously processed, thus complicating the use of digital back-ends with associated high complexities, costs, and power requirements. Our approach involves passive filters implemented using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology to achieve an ultra-compact module that can be easily integrated with existing RF front-end technology. This IF processor is applicable to other microwave sensing missions requiring compact IF spectrometry. The unit produces 52 channels of spectral data in a highly compact volume (
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Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have teamed to adapt an existing instrument platform, the CoSMIR/CoSSIR system for atmospheric sensing, to develop and demonstrate a new capability in a hyperspectral microwave atmospheric sounder (HyMAS). This new sensor comprises a highly innovative intermediate frequency processor (IFP), that provides...

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Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays

Published in:
SPIE, Vol. 9070, Infrared Technology and Applications XL, 5 May 2014, 90703D.

Summary

Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plan array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) devices for many years. In this work, we leverage legacy designs modified with new features to realize a computational imaging array (CIA) with advanced pixel-processing capabilities. We briefly review the use of DFPAs for on-chip background removal and image plane filtering. We focus on two digital readout integrated circuits (DROICS) as CIAs for two-dimensional (2D) transient target tracking and three-dimensional (3) transient target estimation using per-pixel coded-apertures or flutter shutters. This paper describes two DROICs -- a SWIR pixel-processing imager (SWIR-PPI) and a Visible CIA (VISCIA). SWIR-PPI is a DROIC with a 1 kHz global frame rate with a maximum per-pixel shuttering rate of 100 MHz, such that each pixel can be modulated by a time-varying, pseudo-random, and duo-binary signal (+1,-1,0). Combining per-pixel time-domain coding and processing enables 3D (x,y,T) target estimation with limited loss of spatial resolution. We evaluate structured and pseudo-random encoding strategies and employ linear inversion and non-linear inversion using total-variation minimization to estimate a 3D data cube from a single 2D temporally-encoded measurement. The VISCIA DROIC, while low-resolution, has a 6 kHz global frame rate and simultaneously encodes eight periodic or aperiodic transient target signatures at a maximum rate of 50 MHz using eight 8-bit counters. By transferring pixel-based image plane coding to the DROIC and utilizing sophisticated processing, our CIAs enable on-chip temporal super-resolution.
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Summary

Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plan array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digital-pixel focal plane array...

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A compressed sensing analog-to-information converter with edge-triggered SAR ADC core

Published in:
ISCAS 2012: IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems, 20-23 May 2012, pp. 3162-3165.

Summary

This paper presents the design and implementation of an analog-to-information converter (AIC) based on compressed sensing. The core of the AIC is an edge-triggered charge-sharing SAR ADC. Compressed sensing is achieved through random sampling and asynchronous successive approximation conversion using the ADC core. Implemented in 90nm CMOS, the prototype SAR ADC core achieves a maximum sample rate of 9.5MS/s, an ENOB of 9.3 bits, and consumes 550 mu W from a 1.2V supply. Measurement results of the compressed sensing AIC demonstrate effective sub-Nyquist random sampling and reconstruction of signals with sparse frequency support suitable for wideband spectrum sensing applications. When accounting for the increased input bandwidth compared to Nyquist, the AIC achieves an effective FOM of 10.2fJ/conversion-step.
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Summary

This paper presents the design and implementation of an analog-to-information converter (AIC) based on compressed sensing. The core of the AIC is an edge-triggered charge-sharing SAR ADC. Compressed sensing is achieved through random sampling and asynchronous successive approximation conversion using the ADC core. Implemented in 90nm CMOS, the prototype SAR...

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Design and analysis of a hyperspectral microwave receiver subsystem

Published in:
MICRORAD 2012, 12th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment, 5-9 March 2012.

Summary

Recent technology advances have profoundly changed the landscape of modern radiometry by enabling miniaturized, low-power, and low-noise radio-frequency receivers operating at frequencies near 200 GHz and beyond. These advances enable the practical use of receiver arrays to multiplex multiple broad frequency bands into many spectral channels. We use the term "hyperspectral microwave" to refer generically to microwave sounding systems with approximately 50 spectral channels or more. In this paper, we report on the design and analysis of the receiver subsystem (lensed antenna, RF frontend electronics, and IF processor module) for the Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) comprising multiple receivers near the oxygen absorption line at 118.75 GHz and the water vapor absorption line at 183.31 GHz. The hyperspectral microwave receiver system will be integrated into a new scanhead compatible with the NASA GSFC Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer/Compact Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR/CoSSIR) airborne instrument system to facilitate demonstration and performance characterization under funding from the NASA ESTO Advanced Component Technology program. Four identical radiometers will be used to cover 108-119 GHz, and two identical receivers will be used to cover 173-183 GHz. Subharmonic mixers will be driven by frequency-multiplied dielectric resonant oscillators, and single-sideband operation will be achieved by waveguide filtering of the lower sideband. A relatively high IF frequency is chosen to facilitate miniaturization of the IF processor module, which will be fabricated using Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology. Corrugated feed antennas with lenses are used to achieve a FWHM beamwidth of approximately 3.5 degrees. Two polarizations are measured by each feed to increase overall channel count, and multiple options will be considered during the design phase for the polarization diplexing approach. Broadband operation over a relatively high intermediate frequency range (18-29 GHz) is a technical challenge of the front-end receiver systems, and a receiver temperature of approximately 2000-3000K is expected over the receiver bandwidth. This performance, together with approximately l00-msec integration times typical of airborne operation, yields channel NEDTs of approximately 0.35K, which is adequate to demonstrate the hyperspectral microwave concept by comparing profile retrievals with high-fidelity ground truth available either by coincident overpasses of hyperspectral infrared sounders and/or in situ radiosonde/dropsonde measurements.
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Summary

Recent technology advances have profoundly changed the landscape of modern radiometry by enabling miniaturized, low-power, and low-noise radio-frequency receivers operating at frequencies near 200 GHz and beyond. These advances enable the practical use of receiver arrays to multiplex multiple broad frequency bands into many spectral channels. We use the term...

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