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Snapshot on-chip HDR ROIC architectures

Published in:
Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, 7-11 June 2015.

Summary

We describe novel digital readout integrated circuits (DROICs) that achieve snapshot on-chip high dynamic range imaging where most commercial systems require a multiple exposure acquisition.
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Summary

We describe novel digital readout integrated circuits (DROICs) that achieve snapshot on-chip high dynamic range imaging where most commercial systems require a multiple exposure acquisition.

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Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays

Published in:
SPIE, Vol. 9070, Infrared Technology and Applications XL, 5 May 2014, 90703D.

Summary

Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plan array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) devices for many years. In this work, we leverage legacy designs modified with new features to realize a computational imaging array (CIA) with advanced pixel-processing capabilities. We briefly review the use of DFPAs for on-chip background removal and image plane filtering. We focus on two digital readout integrated circuits (DROICS) as CIAs for two-dimensional (2D) transient target tracking and three-dimensional (3) transient target estimation using per-pixel coded-apertures or flutter shutters. This paper describes two DROICs -- a SWIR pixel-processing imager (SWIR-PPI) and a Visible CIA (VISCIA). SWIR-PPI is a DROIC with a 1 kHz global frame rate with a maximum per-pixel shuttering rate of 100 MHz, such that each pixel can be modulated by a time-varying, pseudo-random, and duo-binary signal (+1,-1,0). Combining per-pixel time-domain coding and processing enables 3D (x,y,T) target estimation with limited loss of spatial resolution. We evaluate structured and pseudo-random encoding strategies and employ linear inversion and non-linear inversion using total-variation minimization to estimate a 3D data cube from a single 2D temporally-encoded measurement. The VISCIA DROIC, while low-resolution, has a 6 kHz global frame rate and simultaneously encodes eight periodic or aperiodic transient target signatures at a maximum rate of 50 MHz using eight 8-bit counters. By transferring pixel-based image plane coding to the DROIC and utilizing sophisticated processing, our CIAs enable on-chip temporal super-resolution.
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Summary

Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plan array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digital-pixel focal plane array...

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Simultaneous dynamic pupil coding with on-chip coded aperture temporal imaging

Published in:
SRS 2014: Signal Recovery and Synthesis Conf., 13-17 June 2014.

Summary

We describe a new sensor that combines dynamic pupil coding with a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) capable of modulating a scene with a global or per-pixel time-varying, pseudo-random, and duo-binary signal (+1-1,0).
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Summary

We describe a new sensor that combines dynamic pupil coding with a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) capable of modulating a scene with a global or per-pixel time-varying, pseudo-random, and duo-binary signal (+1-1,0).

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Digital pixel CMOS focal plane array with on-chip multiply accumulate units for low-latency image processing

Published in:
SPIE, Vol. 9070, Infrared Technology and Applications XL, 5 May 2014, 90703B.

Summary

A digital pixel CMOS focal plane array has been developed to enable low latency implementations of image processing systems such as centroid trackers, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors, and Fitts correlation trackers through the use of in-pixel digital signal processing (DSP) and generic parallel pipelined multiply accumulate (MAC) units. Light intensity digitization occurs at the pixel level, enabling in-pixel DSP and noiseless data transfer from the pixel array to the peripheral processing units. The pipelined processing of row and column image data prior to off chip readout reduces the required output bandwidth of the image sensor, thus reducing the latency of computations necessary to implement various image processing systems. Data volume reductions of over 80% lead to sub 10us latency for completing various tracking and sensor algorithms. This paper details the architecture of the pixel-processing imager (PPI) and presents some initial results from a prototype device fabricated in a standard 65nm CMOS process hybridized to a commercial off-the-shelf short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector array.
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Summary

A digital pixel CMOS focal plane array has been developed to enable low latency implementations of image processing systems such as centroid trackers, Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors, and Fitts correlation trackers through the use of in-pixel digital signal processing (DSP) and generic parallel pipelined multiply accumulate (MAC) units. Light intensity digitization...

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Pixel-processing imager development for directed energy applications

Summary

Tactical high-energy laser (HEL) systems face a range of imaging-related challenges in wavefront sensing, acquiring and tracking targets, selecting the HEL aimpoint, and assessing lethality. Accomplishing these functions in a timely fashion may be limited by competing requirements on total field of regard, target resolution, signal to noise, and focal plane readout bandwidth. In this paper, we explore the applicability of an emerging pixel-processing imager (PPI) technology to these challenges. The on-focal-plane signal processing capabilities of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory PPI technology have recently been extended in support of directed energy applications. We describe this work as well as early results from a new PPI-based short-wave-infrared focal plane readout capable of supporting diverse applications such as low-latency Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, centroid computation, and Fitts correlation tracking.
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Summary

Tactical high-energy laser (HEL) systems face a range of imaging-related challenges in wavefront sensing, acquiring and tracking targets, selecting the HEL aimpoint, and assessing lethality. Accomplishing these functions in a timely fashion may be limited by competing requirements on total field of regard, target resolution, signal to noise, and focal...

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