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State of the art focal plane arrays of InP/InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for active electro-optical applications

Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed InP/InGaAsP Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes and associated readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that have enabled numerous active optical systems over the past decade. Framed and asynchronous photon timing ROIC architectures have been demonstrated. In recent years, efforts at MITLL have focused on technology development to advance the state of the art of framed Gm APD FPAs and a 256x128 pixel FPA with on-chip data thinning has been demonstrated.
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Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed InP/InGaAsP Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes and associated readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that have enabled numerous active optical systems over the past decade. Framed and asynchronous photon timing ROIC architectures have been demonstrated. In recent years, efforts at MITLL have focused on technology development to advance the...

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Optical phased-array ladar

Published in:
Appl. Opt., Vol. 53, No. 31, 1 November 2014, pp. 7551-5.

Summary

We demonstrate a ladar with 0.5 m class range resolution obtained by integrating a continuous-wave optical phased-array transmitter with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode receiver array. In contrast with conventional ladar systems, an array of continuous-wave sources is used to effectively pulse illuminate a target by electro-optically steering far-field fringes. From the reference frame of a point in the far field, a steered fringe appears as a pulse. Range information is thus obtained by measuring the arrival time of a pulse return from a target to a receiver pixel. This ladar system offers a number of benefits, including broad spectral coverage, high efficiency, small size, power scalability, and versatility.
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Summary

We demonstrate a ladar with 0.5 m class range resolution obtained by integrating a continuous-wave optical phased-array transmitter with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode receiver array. In contrast with conventional ladar systems, an array of continuous-wave sources is used to effectively pulse illuminate a target by electro-optically steering far-field fringes. From...

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Automatic registration of LIDAR and optical images of urban scenes

Published in:
CVPR 2009, IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 20-25 June 2009, pp. 2639-2646.

Summary

Fusion of 3D laser radar (LIDAR) imagery and aerial optical imagery is an efficient method for constructing 3D virtual reality models. One difficult aspect of creating such models is registering the optical image with the LIDAR point cloud, which is characterized as a camera pose estimation problem. We propose a novel application of mutual information registration methods, which exploits the statistical dependency in urban scenes of optical apperance with measured LIDAR elevation. We utilize the well known downhill simplex optimization to infer camera pose parameters. We discuss three methods for measuring mutual information between LIDAR imagery and optical imagery. Utilization of OpenGL and graphics hardware in the optimization process yields registration times dramatically lower than previous methods. Using an initial registration comparable to GPS/INS accuracy, we demonstrate the utility of our algorithm with a collection of urban images and present 3D models created with the fused imagery.
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Summary

Fusion of 3D laser radar (LIDAR) imagery and aerial optical imagery is an efficient method for constructing 3D virtual reality models. One difficult aspect of creating such models is registering the optical image with the LIDAR point cloud, which is characterized as a camera pose estimation problem. We propose a...

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Reliable large format arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Published in:
IPRM 2008, 20th Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 25-29 May 2008.
Topic:

Summary

The fabrication of reliable InP-based Geigermode avalanche photodiode arrays is described. Arrays of up to 256 x 64 elements have been produced and mated to silicon read-out circuits forming single-photon infrared focal plane imagers for 1.06 and 1.5 mum applications.
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Summary

The fabrication of reliable InP-based Geigermode avalanche photodiode arrays is described. Arrays of up to 256 x 64 elements have been produced and mated to silicon read-out circuits forming single-photon infrared focal plane imagers for 1.06 and 1.5 mum applications.

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Laser radar imager based on 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with two SOI timing circuit layers

Summary

We have developed focal-plane arrays and laser-radar (ladar) imaging systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) integrated with high-speed all-digital CMOS timing circuits. A Geiger-mode APD produces a digital pulse upon detection of a single photon. This pulse is used to stop a fast digital counter in the pixel circuit, thereby measuring photon arrival time. This "photon-to-digital conversion" yields quantum-limited sensitivity and noiseless readout, enabling high-performance ladar systems. Previously reported focal planes, based on bump bonding or epoxy bonding the APDs to foundry chips, had coarse (100um) pixel spacing and 0.5ns timing quantization.
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Summary

We have developed focal-plane arrays and laser-radar (ladar) imaging systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) integrated with high-speed all-digital CMOS timing circuits. A Geiger-mode APD produces a digital pulse upon detection of a single photon. This pulse is used to stop a fast digital counter in the pixel circuit...

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Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging

Published in:
Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2002, pp. 335-350.

Summary

We discuss the properties of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and their use in developing an imaging laser radar (ladar). This type of photodetector gives a fast electrical pulse in response to the detection of even a single photon, allowing for sub-nsec-precision photon-flight-time measurement. We present ongoing work at Lincoln Laboratory on three-dimensional (3D) imaging with arrays of these diodes, and the integration of the arrays with fast complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital timing circuits.
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Summary

We discuss the properties of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and their use in developing an imaging laser radar (ladar). This type of photodetector gives a fast electrical pulse in response to the detection of even a single photon, allowing for sub-nsec-precision photon-flight-time measurement. We present ongoing work at Lincoln Laboratory...

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Development and performance of a CW coherent laser radar for detecting wake vortices

Published in:
Optical Society of America, Coherent Laser Radar Topical Mtg., 1995 Technical Digest Series, Vol. 19, 23-27 July 1995, pp. 186-189

Summary

A CW-coherent laser radar using a 20-Watt CO2 laser has been constructed and deployed for the measurement of wake-vortext turbulence. This is part of a larger effort to understand the motion and decay of wake vortices as a function of the local atmospheric conditions. The construction and operation of the lidar and the initial fielding at Memphis International Airport are described.
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Summary

A CW-coherent laser radar using a 20-Watt CO2 laser has been constructed and deployed for the measurement of wake-vortext turbulence. This is part of a larger effort to understand the motion and decay of wake vortices as a function of the local atmospheric conditions. The construction and operation of the...

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