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Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Summary

An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by a finite state machine that actively quenches an APD upon a photon detection event, and re-biases the device into Geiger mode after a programmable hold-off time. While an individual APD is in hold-off mode, other elements in the array are biased and available to detect photons. This approach enables high pixel refresh frequency (PRF), making the device suitable for applications including optical communications and frequency-agile ladar. A built-in electronic shutter that de-biases the whole array allows the detector to operate in a gated mode or allows for detection to be temporarily disabled. On-chip data reduction reduces the high bandwidth requirements of simultaneous detection and readout. Additional features include programmable single-pixel disable, region of interest processing, and programmable output data rates. State-based on-chip clock gating reduces overall power draw. ROIC operation has been demonstrated with hybridized InP APDs sensitive to 1.06-Mm and 1.55-Mm wavelength, and fully packaged focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been assembled and characterized.
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Summary

An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by...

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InP-based single-photon detector arrays with asynchronous readout integrated circuits

Summary

We have developed and demonstrated a highduty- cycle asynchronous InGaAsP-based photon counting detector system with near-ideal Poisson response, roomtemperature operation, and nanosecond timing resolution for near-infrared applications. The detector is based on an array of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes coupled to a custom integrated circuit that provides for lossless readout via an asynchronous, nongated architecture. We present results showing Poisson response for incident photon flux rates up to 10 million photons per second and multiple photons per 3-ns timing bin.
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Summary

We have developed and demonstrated a highduty- cycle asynchronous InGaAsP-based photon counting detector system with near-ideal Poisson response, roomtemperature operation, and nanosecond timing resolution for near-infrared applications. The detector is based on an array of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes coupled to a custom integrated circuit that provides for lossless readout via...

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Reliable large format arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Published in:
IPRM 2008, 20th Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 25-29 May 2008.
Topic:

Summary

The fabrication of reliable InP-based Geigermode avalanche photodiode arrays is described. Arrays of up to 256 x 64 elements have been produced and mated to silicon read-out circuits forming single-photon infrared focal plane imagers for 1.06 and 1.5 mum applications.
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Summary

The fabrication of reliable InP-based Geigermode avalanche photodiode arrays is described. Arrays of up to 256 x 64 elements have been produced and mated to silicon read-out circuits forming single-photon infrared focal plane imagers for 1.06 and 1.5 mum applications.

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Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting

Summary

Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with InGaAsP absorber regions have been fabricated and characterized in the Geiger mode for photon-counting applications. Measurements of APDs with InGaAsP absorbers optimized for 1.06 um wavelength show dark count rates (DCRs)
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Summary

Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with InGaAsP absorber regions have been fabricated and characterized in the Geiger mode for photon-counting applications. Measurements of APDs with InGaAsP absorbers optimized for 1.06 um wavelength show dark count rates (DCRs)

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Afterpulsing in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 1.06um wavelength

Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these devices. For 30-um-diam, 1.06-um-wavelength InGaAsP/InP APDs operated at 290 K and 4 V overbias, we obtained a dominant trap lifetime of td=0.32 us, a trap energy of 0.11 eV, and a baseline dark count rate 245 kHz.
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Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these...

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