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Large-format Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays and readout circuits

Published in:
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., Vol. 24, No. 2, March/April 2018, 3800510.

Summary

Over the past 20 years, we have developed arrays of custom-fabricated silicon and InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays, CMOS readout circuits to digitally count or time stamp single-photon detection events, and techniques to integrate these two components to make back-illuminated solid-state image sensors for lidar, optical communications, and passive imaging. Starting with 4 × 4 arrays, we have recently demonstrated 256 × 256 arrays, and are working to scale to megapixel-class imagers. In this paper, we review this progress and discuss key technical challenges to scaling to large format.
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Summary

Over the past 20 years, we have developed arrays of custom-fabricated silicon and InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays, CMOS readout circuits to digitally count or time stamp single-photon detection events, and techniques to integrate these two components to make back-illuminated solid-state image sensors for lidar, optical communications, and passive imaging...

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State of the art focal plane arrays of InP/InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for active electro-optical applications

Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed InP/InGaAsP Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes and associated readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that have enabled numerous active optical systems over the past decade. Framed and asynchronous photon timing ROIC architectures have been demonstrated. In recent years, efforts at MITLL have focused on technology development to advance the state of the art of framed Gm APD FPAs and a 256x128 pixel FPA with on-chip data thinning has been demonstrated.
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Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed InP/InGaAsP Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes and associated readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that have enabled numerous active optical systems over the past decade. Framed and asynchronous photon timing ROIC architectures have been demonstrated. In recent years, efforts at MITLL have focused on technology development to advance the...

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Crosstalk characterization and mitigation in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays

Summary

Intra focal plane array (FPA) crosstalk is a primary development limiter of large, fine-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) arrays beyond 256×256 pixels. General analysis methods and results from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) InP-based detector arrays will be presented.
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Summary

Intra focal plane array (FPA) crosstalk is a primary development limiter of large, fine-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) arrays beyond 256×256 pixels. General analysis methods and results from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) InP-based detector arrays will be presented.

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Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Summary

An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by a finite state machine that actively quenches an APD upon a photon detection event, and re-biases the device into Geiger mode after a programmable hold-off time. While an individual APD is in hold-off mode, other elements in the array are biased and available to detect photons. This approach enables high pixel refresh frequency (PRF), making the device suitable for applications including optical communications and frequency-agile ladar. A built-in electronic shutter that de-biases the whole array allows the detector to operate in a gated mode or allows for detection to be temporarily disabled. On-chip data reduction reduces the high bandwidth requirements of simultaneous detection and readout. Additional features include programmable single-pixel disable, region of interest processing, and programmable output data rates. State-based on-chip clock gating reduces overall power draw. ROIC operation has been demonstrated with hybridized InP APDs sensitive to 1.06-Mm and 1.55-Mm wavelength, and fully packaged focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been assembled and characterized.
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Summary

An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by...

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InP-based single-photon detector arrays with asynchronous readout integrated circuits

Summary

We have developed and demonstrated a highduty- cycle asynchronous InGaAsP-based photon counting detector system with near-ideal Poisson response, roomtemperature operation, and nanosecond timing resolution for near-infrared applications. The detector is based on an array of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes coupled to a custom integrated circuit that provides for lossless readout via an asynchronous, nongated architecture. We present results showing Poisson response for incident photon flux rates up to 10 million photons per second and multiple photons per 3-ns timing bin.
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Summary

We have developed and demonstrated a highduty- cycle asynchronous InGaAsP-based photon counting detector system with near-ideal Poisson response, roomtemperature operation, and nanosecond timing resolution for near-infrared applications. The detector is based on an array of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes coupled to a custom integrated circuit that provides for lossless readout via...

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Reliable large format arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Published in:
IPRM 2008, 20th Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 25-29 May 2008.
Topic:

Summary

The fabrication of reliable InP-based Geigermode avalanche photodiode arrays is described. Arrays of up to 256 x 64 elements have been produced and mated to silicon read-out circuits forming single-photon infrared focal plane imagers for 1.06 and 1.5 mum applications.
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Summary

The fabrication of reliable InP-based Geigermode avalanche photodiode arrays is described. Arrays of up to 256 x 64 elements have been produced and mated to silicon read-out circuits forming single-photon infrared focal plane imagers for 1.06 and 1.5 mum applications.

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Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting

Summary

Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with InGaAsP absorber regions have been fabricated and characterized in the Geiger mode for photon-counting applications. Measurements of APDs with InGaAsP absorbers optimized for 1.06 um wavelength show dark count rates (DCRs)
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Summary

Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with InGaAsP absorber regions have been fabricated and characterized in the Geiger mode for photon-counting applications. Measurements of APDs with InGaAsP absorbers optimized for 1.06 um wavelength show dark count rates (DCRs)

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Afterpulsing in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 1.06um wavelength

Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these devices. For 30-um-diam, 1.06-um-wavelength InGaAsP/InP APDs operated at 290 K and 4 V overbias, we obtained a dominant trap lifetime of td=0.32 us, a trap energy of 0.11 eV, and a baseline dark count rate 245 kHz.
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Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these...

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