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State of the art focal plane arrays of InP/InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for active electro-optical applications

Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed InP/InGaAsP Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes and associated readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that have enabled numerous active optical systems over the past decade. Framed and asynchronous photon timing ROIC architectures have been demonstrated. In recent years, efforts at MITLL have focused on technology development to advance the state of the art of framed Gm APD FPAs and a 256x128 pixel FPA with on-chip data thinning has been demonstrated.
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Summary

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed InP/InGaAsP Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes and associated readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that have enabled numerous active optical systems over the past decade. Framed and asynchronous photon timing ROIC architectures have been demonstrated. In recent years, efforts at MITLL have focused on technology development to advance the...

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Crosstalk characterization and mitigation in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays

Summary

Intra focal plane array (FPA) crosstalk is a primary development limiter of large, fine-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) arrays beyond 256×256 pixels. General analysis methods and results from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) InP-based detector arrays will be presented.
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Summary

Intra focal plane array (FPA) crosstalk is a primary development limiter of large, fine-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) arrays beyond 256×256 pixels. General analysis methods and results from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) InP-based detector arrays will be presented.

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Impact ionization in AlxGa1-xASySb1-y avalanche photodiodes

Summary

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have been fabricated in order to determine the impact ionization coefficients of electrons (alpha) and holes (beta) in AlxGa1-xAsySb1-y lattice matched to GaSb for three alloy compositions: (x=0.40, y=0.035), (x=0.55, y=0.045), and (x=0.65, y=0.054). The impact ionization coefficients were calculated from photomultiplication measurements made on specially designed APDs, which allowed for both pure electron and pure hole injection in the same device. Photo-multiplication measurements were made at temperatures ranging from 77K to 300K for all three alloys. A quasi-physical model with an explicit temperature dependence was used to express the impact ionization coefficients as a function of electric-field strength and temperature. For all three alloys, it was found that alpha < beta at any given temperature. In addition, the values of the impact ionization coefficients were found to decrease as the aluminum concentration of the AlGaAsSb alloy was increased. A value between 1.2 and 4.0 was found for beta/x, which is dependent on temperature, alloy composition, and electric-field strength.
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Summary

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have been fabricated in order to determine the impact ionization coefficients of electrons (alpha) and holes (beta) in AlxGa1-xAsySb1-y lattice matched to GaSb for three alloy compositions: (x=0.40, y=0.035), (x=0.55, y=0.045), and (x=0.65, y=0.054). The impact ionization coefficients were calculated from photomultiplication measurements made on specially designed...

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Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Summary

An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by a finite state machine that actively quenches an APD upon a photon detection event, and re-biases the device into Geiger mode after a programmable hold-off time. While an individual APD is in hold-off mode, other elements in the array are biased and available to detect photons. This approach enables high pixel refresh frequency (PRF), making the device suitable for applications including optical communications and frequency-agile ladar. A built-in electronic shutter that de-biases the whole array allows the detector to operate in a gated mode or allows for detection to be temporarily disabled. On-chip data reduction reduces the high bandwidth requirements of simultaneous detection and readout. Additional features include programmable single-pixel disable, region of interest processing, and programmable output data rates. State-based on-chip clock gating reduces overall power draw. ROIC operation has been demonstrated with hybridized InP APDs sensitive to 1.06-Mm and 1.55-Mm wavelength, and fully packaged focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been assembled and characterized.
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Summary

An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by...

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InGaAsP/InP quantum-well electrorefractive modulators with sub-volt V[pi]

Published in:
SPIE Vol. 5435, Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications VI, 12-16 April 2004, pp. 53-63.

Summary

Advanced analog-optical sensor, signal processing and communication systems could benefit significantly from wideband (DC to > 50 GHz) optical modulators having both low half-wave voltage (V[pi]) and low optical insertion loss. An important figure-of-merit for modulators used in analog applications is TMAX/V[pi], where TMAX is the optical transmission of the modulator when biased for maximum transmission. Candidate electro-optic materials for realizing these modulators include lithium niobate (LiNbO3), polymers, and semiconductors, each of which has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we report the development of 1.5-um-wavelength Mach-Zehnder modulators utilizing the electrorefractive effect in InGaAsP/InP symmetric, uncoupled semiconductor quantum-wells. Modulators with 1-cm-long, lumped-element electrodes are found to have a push-pull V[pi] of 0.9V (V[pi]L = 9 V-mm) and 18-dB fiber-to-fiber insertion loss (TMAX/V[pi] = 0.018). Fabry-Perot cutback measurements reveal a waveguide propagation loss of 7 dB/cm and a waveguide-to-fiber coupling loss of 5 dB/facet. The relatively high propagation loss results from a combination of below-bandedge absorption and scattering due to waveguide-sidewall roughness. Analyses show that most of the coupling loss can be eliminated though the use of monolithically integrated invertedtaper optical-mode converters, thereby allowing these modulators to exceed the performance of commercial LiNbO3 modulators (TMAX/V[pi] ~ 0.1). We also report the analog modulation characteristics of these modulators.
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Summary

Advanced analog-optical sensor, signal processing and communication systems could benefit significantly from wideband (DC to &gt; 50 GHz) optical modulators having both low half-wave voltage (V[pi]) and low optical insertion loss. An important figure-of-merit for modulators used in analog applications is TMAX/V[pi], where TMAX is the optical transmission of the...

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All-Active InGaAsP-InP Optical Tapered-Amplifier 1 X N Power Splitters

Published in:
IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., Vol. 12, No. 8, August 2000, pp. 974-976.

Summary

All-active tapered-amplifier power splitters (TAPS) consisting of a single-mode input waveguide, which acts as a pre-amplifier, a two-dimensional (2-D) diffraction section, which amplifies the signal during the splitting process, and N single-mode output waveguides, which act as post-amplifiers, were fabricated in 1.3um InGaAsP quantum-well material. Gains in each output guide (power out of guide/input power) of greater than 10 dB with a uniformity of better than 0.5 dB from guide to guide were measured on a 1 x 8 TAPS device.
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Summary

All-active tapered-amplifier power splitters (TAPS) consisting of a single-mode input waveguide, which acts as a pre-amplifier, a two-dimensional (2-D) diffraction section, which amplifies the signal during the splitting process, and N single-mode output waveguides, which act as post-amplifiers, were fabricated in 1.3um InGaAsP quantum-well material. Gains in each output guide...

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1.5-um Tapered-Gain-Region Lasers with High-CW Output Powers

Published in:
IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., Vol. 10, No. 10, October 1998, pp. 1377-1379.

Summary

High-power diode lasers consisting of a ridge-waveguide section coupled to a tapered region have been fabricated in 1.5um InGaAsP-InP multiple-quantum-well material. Self-focusing at high current densities and high-intensity input into the taper section has been identified as a fundamental problem in these devices that has to be dealt with. To date, continuous-wave output powers>1 W with=80% of the power in the near-diffraction-limited central lobe of the far field have been obtained through a judicious choice of device parameters.
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Summary

High-power diode lasers consisting of a ridge-waveguide section coupled to a tapered region have been fabricated in 1.5um InGaAsP-InP multiple-quantum-well material. Self-focusing at high current densities and high-intensity input into the taper section has been identified as a fundamental problem in these devices that has to be dealt with. To...

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CW operation of monolithic arrays of surface-emitting AlGaAs diode lasers with dry-etched vertical facets and parabolic deflecting mirrors

Summary

A monolithic two-dimensional array of surface-emitting AlGaAs diode lasers with dry-etched vertical facets and parabolic deflecting mirrors was mounted junction-side up on a W / Cu microchannel heatsink and evaluated under continuous-wave (CW) operating conditions. Both the facets and parabolic deflecting mirrors were etched using chlorine ion-beam-assistd etching. Threshold current densities of different sections of the array were consistently around 240 A/cm (to the second power), and measured CW differential quantum efficiencies were in the 46-48% range. CW power densities as high as 148 W/cm (to the second power) were achieved with an average temperature rise of less than 25 degrees C in this junction-side-up configuration.
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Summary

A monolithic two-dimensional array of surface-emitting AlGaAs diode lasers with dry-etched vertical facets and parabolic deflecting mirrors was mounted junction-side up on a W / Cu microchannel heatsink and evaluated under continuous-wave (CW) operating conditions. Both the facets and parabolic deflecting mirrors were etched using chlorine ion-beam-assistd etching. Threshold current...

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