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High performance, 3D-printable dielectric nanocomposites for millimeter wave devices

Summary

The creation of millimeter wave, 3D-printable dielectric nanocomposite is demonstrated. Alumina nanoparticles were combined with styrenic block copolymers and solvent to create shear thinning, viscoelastic inks that are printable at room temperature. Particle loadings of up to 41 vol % were achieved. Upon being dried, the highest-performing of these materials has a permittivity of 4.61 and a loss tangent of 0.00298 in the Ka band (26.5-40 GHz), a combination not previously demonstrated for 3D printing. These nanocomposite materials were used to print a simple resonator device with predictable pass-band features.
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Summary

The creation of millimeter wave, 3D-printable dielectric nanocomposite is demonstrated. Alumina nanoparticles were combined with styrenic block copolymers and solvent to create shear thinning, viscoelastic inks that are printable at room temperature. Particle loadings of up to 41 vol % were achieved. Upon being dried, the highest-performing of these materials...

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In situ microfluidic SERS assay for monitoring enzymatic breakdown of organophosphates

Published in:
Nanoscale, Vol. 7, No. 25, 2015, 11013-23.

Summary

In this paper, we report on a method to probe the breakdown of the organophosphate (OP) simulants o, s-diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (OSDMP) and demeton S by the enzyme organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) in a microfluidic device by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS hotspots were formed on-demand inside the microfluidic device by laser-induced aggregation of injected Ag NPs suspensions. The Ag NP clusters, covering micron-sized areas, were formed within minutes using a conventional confocal Raman laser microscope. These Ag NP clusters were used to enhance the Raman spectra of the thiol products of OP breakdown in the microfluidic device: ethanethiol (EtSH) and (ethylsulfanyl) ethane-1-thiol (2-EET). When the OPH enzyme and its substrates OSDMP and demeton S were introduced, the thiolated breakdown products were generated, resulting in changes in the SERS spectra. With the ability to analyze reaction volumes as low as 20 nL, our approach demonstrates great potential for miniaturization of SERS analytical protocols.
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Summary

In this paper, we report on a method to probe the breakdown of the organophosphate (OP) simulants o, s-diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (OSDMP) and demeton S by the enzyme organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) in a microfluidic device by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS hotspots were formed on-demand inside the microfluidic device...

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Engineered liquid crystal anchoring energies with nanopatterned surfaces

Published in:
Opt. Express, Vol. 23, No. 2, 26 January 2015, pp. 807-14.

Summary

The anchoring energy of liquid crystals was shown to be tunable by surface nanopatterning of periodic lines and spaces. Both the pitch and height were varied using hydrogen silsesquioxane negative tone electron beam resist, providing for flexibility in magnitude and spatial distribution of the anchoring energy. Using twisted nematic liquid crystal cells, it was shown that this energy is tunable over an order of magnitude. These results agree with a literature model which predicts the anchoring energy of sinusoidal grooves.
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Summary

The anchoring energy of liquid crystals was shown to be tunable by surface nanopatterning of periodic lines and spaces. Both the pitch and height were varied using hydrogen silsesquioxane negative tone electron beam resist, providing for flexibility in magnitude and spatial distribution of the anchoring energy. Using twisted nematic liquid...

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Silicon photonics devices for integrated analog signal processing and sampling

Published in:
Nanophotonics, Vol. 3, No. 4-5, 1 August 2014, pp. 313-27.

Summary

Silicon photonics offers the possibility of a reduction in size weight and power for many optical systems, and could open up the ability to build optical systems with complexities that would otherwise be impossible to achieve. Silicon photonics is an emerging technology that has already been inserted into commercial communication products. This technology has also been applied to analog signal processing applications. MIT Lincoln Laboratory in collaboration with groups at MIT has developed a toolkit of silicon photonic devices with a focus on the needs of analog systems. This toolkit includes low-loss waveguides, a high-speed modulator, ring resonator based filter bank, and all-silicon photodiodes. The components are integrated together for a hybrid photonic and electronic analog-to-digital converter. The development and performance of these devices will be discussed. Additionally, the linear performance of these devices, which is important for analog systems, is also investigated.
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Summary

Silicon photonics offers the possibility of a reduction in size weight and power for many optical systems, and could open up the ability to build optical systems with complexities that would otherwise be impossible to achieve. Silicon photonics is an emerging technology that has already been inserted into commercial communication...

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Nonlinear bleaching, absorption, and scattering of 532-nm-irradiated plasmonic nanoparticles

Published in:
J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 113. No. 5, 7 February 2013, 053107.

Summary

Single-pulse irradiation of Au and Ag suspensions of nanospheres and nanodisks with 532-nm 4-ns pulses has identified complex optical nonlinearities while minimizing material damage. For all materials tested, we observe competition between saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA), with RSA behavior dominating for intensities above ~50 MW/cm^2. Due to reduced laser damage in single-pulse experiments, the observed intrinsic nonlinear absorption coefficients are the highest reported to date for Au nanoparticles. We find size dependence to the nonlinear absorption enhancement for Au nanoparticles, peaking in magnitude for 80-nm nanospheres and falling off at larger sizes. The nonlinear absorption coefficients for Au and Ag spheres are comparable in magnitude. On the other hand, the nonlinear absorption for Ag disks, when corrected for volume fraction, is several times higher. These trends in nonlinear absorption are correlated to local electric field enhancement through quasi-static mean-field theory. Through variable size aperture measurements, we also separate nonlinear scattering from nonlinear absorption. For all materials tested, we find that nonlinear scattering is highly directional and that its magnitude is comparable to that of nonlinear absorption. These results indicate methods to improve the efficacy of plasmonic nanoparticles as optical limiters in pulsed laser systems.
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Summary

Single-pulse irradiation of Au and Ag suspensions of nanospheres and nanodisks with 532-nm 4-ns pulses has identified complex optical nonlinearities while minimizing material damage. For all materials tested, we observe competition between saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA), with RSA behavior dominating for intensities above ~50 MW/cm^2. Due to...

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A nanoparticle convective directed assembly process for the fabrication of periodic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates

Summary

A highly scalable approach for producing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates is introduced. The novel method involves assembling individual nanoparticles in pre-defined templates, one particle per template, forming a high denisity of nanogaps over large areas, while decoupling nanostructure synthesis from placement.
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Summary

A highly scalable approach for producing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates is introduced. The novel method involves assembling individual nanoparticles in pre-defined templates, one particle per template, forming a high denisity of nanogaps over large areas, while decoupling nanostructure synthesis from placement.

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Optical limiting with complex plasmonic nanoparticles

Published in:
J. Optics, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2010, 065001.

Summary

Optical limiting by suspensions of Au nanoparticles is enhanced by several orders of magnitude with the use of complex plasmonic shapes, such as spined "nanourchins," instead of nanospheres. Similar enhancements are observed by changing the material of nanospheres from Au to Ag. The experiments, measuring intensity-dependent transmission over a wavelength range from 450 to 650 nm for a 6 ns pulsed laser, are analyzed in terms of an effective nonlinear extinction coefficient, which we relate to the local, plasmonically enhanced electric field. FDTD simulations reveal a large electric field enhancement inside the nanospined structures and qualitatively confirm the plasmonic trends, where Ag nanospheres and Au nanourchins are more effective than Au nanospheres. These results suggest that designing nanostructures for the maximum plasmonic enhancement provides a roadmap to materials and geometries with optimized optical limiting behavior.
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Summary

Optical limiting by suspensions of Au nanoparticles is enhanced by several orders of magnitude with the use of complex plasmonic shapes, such as spined "nanourchins," instead of nanospheres. Similar enhancements are observed by changing the material of nanospheres from Au to Ag. The experiments, measuring intensity-dependent transmission over a wavelength...

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Nanocomposite approaches toward pellicles for 157-nm lithography

Published in:
J. Microlith., Microfab., Microsyst., Vol. 4, No. 1, January-March 2005, pp. 013004-1 - 013004-6.

Summary

Pellicle materials for use at 157 nm must display sufficient transparency at this wavelength and adequate lifetimes to be useful. We blended a leading candidate fluoropolymer with silica nanoparticles to examine the effect on both the transparency and lifetime of the pellicle. It is anticipated that these composite materials may increase the lifetime by perhaps quenching reactive species and/or by dilution, without severely decreasing the 157-nm transmission. Particles surface-modified with fluorinated moieties are also investigated. The additives are introduced as stable nanoparticle dispersions to casting solutions of the fluoropolymers. The properties of these solutions, films, and the radiationinduced darkening rates are reported. The latter are reduced in proportion to the dilution of the polymer, but there is no evidence that the nanoparticles act as radical scavengers.
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Summary

Pellicle materials for use at 157 nm must display sufficient transparency at this wavelength and adequate lifetimes to be useful. We blended a leading candidate fluoropolymer with silica nanoparticles to examine the effect on both the transparency and lifetime of the pellicle. It is anticipated that these composite materials may...

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