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Bootstrapping and maintaining trust in the cloud

Published in:
32nd Annual Computer Security Applications Conf., ACSAC 2016, 5-9 December 2016.

Summary

Today's infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud environments rely upon full trust in the provider to secure applications and data. Cloud providers do not offer the ability to create hardware-rooted cryptographic identities for IaaS cloud resources or sufficient information to verify the integrity of systems. Trusted computing protocols and hardware like the TPM have long promised a solution to this problem. However, these technologies have not seen broad adoption because of their complexity of implementation, low performance, and lack of compatibility with virtualized environments. In this paper we introduce keylime, a scalable trusted cloud key management system. keylime provides an end-to-end solution for both bootstrapping hardware rooted cryptographic identities for IaaS nodes and for system integrity monitoring of those nodes via periodic attestation. We support these functions in both bare-metal and virtualized IaaS environments using a virtual TPM. keylime provides a clean interface that allows higher level security services like disk encryption or configuration management to leverage trusted computing without being trusted computing aware. We show that our bootstrapping protocol can derive a key in less than two seconds, we can detect system integrity violations in as little as 110ms, and that keylime can scale to thousands of IaaS cloud nodes.
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Summary

Today's infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud environments rely upon full trust in the provider to secure applications and data. Cloud providers do not offer the ability to create hardware-rooted cryptographic identities for IaaS cloud resources or sufficient information to verify the integrity of systems. Trusted computing protocols and hardware...

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Leveraging data provenance to enhance cyber resilience

Summary

Building secure systems used to mean ensuring a secure perimeter, but that is no longer the case. Today's systems are ill-equipped to deal with attackers that are able to pierce perimeter defenses. Data provenance is a critical technology in building resilient systems that will allow systems to recover from attackers that manage to overcome the "hard-shell" defenses. In this paper, we provide background information on data provenance, details on provenance collection, analysis, and storage techniques and challenges. Data provenance is situated to address the challenging problem of allowing a system to "fight-through" an attack, and we help to identify necessary work to ensure that future systems are resilient.
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Summary

Building secure systems used to mean ensuring a secure perimeter, but that is no longer the case. Today's systems are ill-equipped to deal with attackers that are able to pierce perimeter defenses. Data provenance is a critical technology in building resilient systems that will allow systems to recover from attackers...

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High-throughput ingest of data provenance records in Accumulo

Published in:
HPEC 2016: IEEE Conf. on High Performance Extreme Computing, 13-15 September 2016.

Summary

Whole-system data provenance provides deep insight into the processing of data on a system, including detecting data integrity attacks. The downside to systems that collect whole-system data provenance is the sheer volume of data that is generated under many heavy workloads. In order to make provenance metadata useful, it must be stored somewhere where it can be queried. This problem becomes even more challenging when considering a network of provenance-aware machines all collecting this metadata. In this paper, we investigate the use of D4M and Accumulo to support high-throughput data ingest of whole-system provenance data. We find that we are able to ingest 3,970 graph components per second. Centrally storing the provenance metadata allows us to build systems that can detect and respond to data integrity attacks that are captured by the provenance system.
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Summary

Whole-system data provenance provides deep insight into the processing of data on a system, including detecting data integrity attacks. The downside to systems that collect whole-system data provenance is the sheer volume of data that is generated under many heavy workloads. In order to make provenance metadata useful, it must...

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High-throughput ingest of data provenance records in Accumulo

Published in:
HPEC 2016: IEEE Conf. on High Performance Extreme Computing, 13-15 September 2016.

Summary

Whole-system data provenance provides deep insight into the processing of data on a system, including detecting data integrity attacks. The downside to systems that collect whole-system data provenance is the sheer volume of data that is generated under many heavy workloads. In order to make provenance metadata useful, it must be stored somewhere where it can be queried. This problem becomes even more challenging when considering a network of provenance-aware machines all collecting this metadata. In this paper, we investigate the use of D4M and Accumulo to support high-throughput data ingest of whole-system provenance data. We find that we are able to ingest 3,970 graph components per second. Centrally storing the provenance metadata allows us to build systems that can detect and respond to data integrity attacks that are captured by the provenance system.
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Summary

Whole-system data provenance provides deep insight into the processing of data on a system, including detecting data integrity attacks. The downside to systems that collect whole-system data provenance is the sheer volume of data that is generated under many heavy workloads. In order to make provenance metadata useful, it must...

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Runtime integrity measurement and enforcement with automated whitelist generation

Published in:
2014 Annual Computer Security Applications Conf., ACSAC, 8-12 December 2014.

Summary

This poster discusses a strategy for automatic whitelist generation and enforcement using techniques from information flow control and trusted computing. During a measurement phase, a cloud provider uses dynamic taint tracking to generate a whitelist of executed code and associated file hashes generated by an integrity measurement system. Then, at runtime, it can again use dynamic taint tracking to enforce execution only of code from files whose names and integrity measurement hashes exactly match the whitelist, preventing adversaries from exploiting buffer overflows or running their own code on the system. This provides the capability for runtime integrity enforcement or attestation. Our prototype system, built on top of Intel's PIN emulation environment and the libdft taint tracking system, demonstrates high accuracy in tracking the sources of instructions.
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Summary

This poster discusses a strategy for automatic whitelist generation and enforcement using techniques from information flow control and trusted computing. During a measurement phase, a cloud provider uses dynamic taint tracking to generate a whitelist of executed code and associated file hashes generated by an integrity measurement system. Then, at...

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