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Modeling probability of alert of Bluetooth low energy-based automatic exposure notifications

Published in:
MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report ACTA-4

Summary

BLEMUR, or Bluetooth Low Energy Model of User Risk, is a model of the probability of alert at a given duration and distance of an index case for a specific configuration of settings for an Exposure Notification (EN) system.The Google-Apple EN framework operates in the duration and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signal attenuation domains. However, many public health definitions of "exposure" to a disease are based upon the distance between an index case and another person. To bridge the conceptual gap for public health authorities (PHAs) from the familiar distance-and-duration space to the signal attenuation-and-duration space, BLEMUR uses BLE signal attenuation as a proxy for distance between people, albeit an imprecise one. This paper will discuss the EN settings that can be manipulated, the BLE data collected, how data support a model of the relationship between measured attenuation and distance between phones, and how BLEMUR calculates the probability of alert for a distance and duration based on the settings and data.
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Summary

BLEMUR, or Bluetooth Low Energy Model of User Risk, is a model of the probability of alert at a given duration and distance of an index case for a specific configuration of settings for an Exposure Notification (EN) system.The Google-Apple EN framework operates in the duration and Bluetooth Low Energy...

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Utility of inter-subject transfer learning for wearable-sensor-based joint torque prediction models

Published in:
43rd Annual Intl. Conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology, 31 October 2021-4 November 2021.

Summary

Generalizability between individuals and groups is often a significant hurdle in model development for human subjects research. In the domain of wearable-sensor-controlled exoskeleton devices, the ability to generalize models across subjects or fine-tune more general models to individual subjects is key to enabling widespread adoption of these technologies. Transfer learning techniques applied to machine learning models afford the ability to apply and investigate the viability and utility such knowledge-transfer scenarios. This paper investigates the utility of single- and multi-subject based parameter transfer on LSTM models trained for "sensor-to-joint torque" prediction tasks, with regards to task performance and computational resources required for network training. We find that parameter transfer between both single- and multi-subject models provide useful knowledge transfer, with varying results across specific "source" and "target" subject pairings. This could be leveraged to lower model training time or computational cost in compute-constrained environments or, with further study to understand causal factors of the observed variance in performance across source and target pairings, to minimize data collection and model retraining requirements to select and personalize a generic model for personalized wearable-sensor-based joint torque prediction technologies.
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Summary

Generalizability between individuals and groups is often a significant hurdle in model development for human subjects research. In the domain of wearable-sensor-controlled exoskeleton devices, the ability to generalize models across subjects or fine-tune more general models to individual subjects is key to enabling widespread adoption of these technologies. Transfer learning...

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A neural network estimation of ankle torques from electromyography and accelerometry

Summary

Estimations of human joint torques can provide clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Predicting joint torques into the future can also be useful for anticipatory robot control design. In this work, we present a method of mapping joint torque estimates and sequences of torque predictions from motion capture and ground reaction forces to wearable sensor data using several modern types of neural networks. We use dense feedforward, convolutional, neural ordinary differential equation, and long short-term memory neural networks to learn the mapping for ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion torque during standing,walking, running, and sprinting, and consider both single-point torque estimation, as well as the prediction of a sequence of future torques. Our results show that long short-term memory neural networks, which consider incoming data sequentially, outperform dense feedforward, neural ordinary differential equation networks, and convolutional neural networks. Predictions of future ankle torques up to 0.4 s ahead also showed strong positive correlations with the actual torques. The proposed method relies on learning from a motion capture dataset, but once the model is built, the method uses wearable sensors that enable torque estimation without the motion capture data.
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Summary

Estimations of human joint torques can provide clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Predicting joint torques into the future can also be useful for anticipatory robot control design. In this work, we present a method of mapping joint torque...

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Development of a field artifical intelligence triage tool: Confidence in the prediction of shock, transfusion, and definitive surgical therapy in patients with truncal gunshot wounds

Summary

BACKGROUND: In-field triage tools for trauma patients are limited by availability of information, linear risk classification, and a lack of confidence reporting. We therefore set out to develop and test a machine learning algorithm that can overcome these limitations by accurately and confidently making predictions to support in-field triage in the first hours after traumatic injury. METHODS: Using an American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program-derived database of truncal and junctional gunshot wound (GSW) patients (aged 1~0 years), we trained an information-aware Dirichlet deep neural network (field artificial intelligence triage). Using supervised training, field artificial intelligence triage was trained to predict shock and the need for major hemorrhage control procedures or early massive transfusion (MT) using GSW anatomical locations, vital signs, and patient information available in the field. In parallel, a confidence model was developed to predict the true-dass probability ( scale of 0-1 ), indicating the likelihood that the prediction made was correct, based on the values and interconnectivity of input variables.
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Summary

BACKGROUND: In-field triage tools for trauma patients are limited by availability of information, linear risk classification, and a lack of confidence reporting. We therefore set out to develop and test a machine learning algorithm that can overcome these limitations by accurately and confidently making predictions to support in-field triage in...

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Health-informed policy gradients for multi-agent reinforcement learning

Summary

This paper proposes a definition of system health in the context of multiple agents optimizing a joint reward function. We use this definition as a credit assignment term in a policy gradient algorithm to distinguish the contributions of individual agents to the global reward. The health-informed credit assignment is then extended to a multi-agent variant of the proximal policy optimization algorithm and demonstrated on simple particle environments that have elements of system health, risk-taking, semi-expendable agents, and partial observability. We show significant improvement in learning performance compared to policy gradient methods that do not perform multi-agent credit assignment.
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Summary

This paper proposes a definition of system health in the context of multiple agents optimizing a joint reward function. We use this definition as a credit assignment term in a policy gradient algorithm to distinguish the contributions of individual agents to the global reward. The health-informed credit assignment is then...

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Beyond expertise and roles: a framework to characterize the stakeholders of interpretable machine learning and their needs

Published in:
Proc. Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 8-13 May 2021, article no. 74.

Summary

To ensure accountability and mitigate harm, it is critical that diverse stakeholders can interrogate black-box automated systems and find information that is understandable, relevant, and useful to them. In this paper, we eschew prior expertise- and role-based categorizations of interpretability stakeholders in favor of a more granular framework that decouples stakeholders' knowledge from their interpretability needs. We characterize stakeholders by their formal, instrumental, and personal knowledge and how it manifests in the contexts of machine learning, the data domain, and the general milieu. We additionally distill a hierarchical typology of stakeholder needs that distinguishes higher-level domain goals from lower-level interpretability tasks. In assessing the descriptive, evaluative, and generative powers of our framework, we find our more nuanced treatment of stakeholders reveals gaps and opportunities in the interpretability literature, adds precision to the design and comparison of user studies, and facilitates a more reflexive approach to conducting this research.
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Summary

To ensure accountability and mitigate harm, it is critical that diverse stakeholders can interrogate black-box automated systems and find information that is understandable, relevant, and useful to them. In this paper, we eschew prior expertise- and role-based categorizations of interpretability stakeholders in favor of a more granular framework that decouples...

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Ultrasound diagnosis of COVID-19: robustness and explainability

Published in:
arXiv:2012.01145v1 [eess.IV]

Summary

Diagnosis of COVID-19 at point of care is vital to the containment of the global pandemic. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) provides rapid imagery of lungs to detect COVID-19 in patients in a repeatable and cost effective way. Previous work has used public datasets of POCUS videos to train an AI model for diagnosis that obtains high sensitivity. Due to the high stakes application we propose the use of robust and explainable techniques. We demonstrate experimentally that robust models have more stable predictions and offer improved interpretability. A framework of contrastive explanations based on adversarial perturbations is used to explain model predictions that aligns with human visual perception.
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Summary

Diagnosis of COVID-19 at point of care is vital to the containment of the global pandemic. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) provides rapid imagery of lungs to detect COVID-19 in patients in a repeatable and cost effective way. Previous work has used public datasets of POCUS videos to train an...

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Ankle torque estimation during locomotion from surface electromyography and accelerometry

Published in:
2020 8th IEEE Intl. Conf. on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, BioRob, 29 November - 1 December 2020.

Summary

Estimations of human joint torques can provide quantitative, clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Standard methods for estimating joint torques are limited to laboratory or clinical settings since they require expensive equipment to measure joint kinematics and ground reaction forces. Wearable sensor data combined with neural networks may offer a less expensive and obtrusive estimation method.We present a method of mapping joint torque estimates obtained from motion capture and ground reaction forces to wearable sensor data. We use several different neural networks to learn the torque mapping for the ankle joints during standing, walking, running, and sprinting. Our results show that neural networks that consider time (recurrent and long short-term memory networks) outperform feedforward network architectures, producing results in the range of 0.005-0.008 N m/kg mean squared error (MSE) when compared to the inverse dynamics model on which it was trained. As a point of reference, the typical measurement errors from inverse dynamics models are in the range of 0.0004-0.0064 N m/kg MSE. Errors tended to increase with locomotion speed, with the highest errors during sprinting and the lowest during standing or walking. Future work may investigate model generalizability across sensor placements, subjects, locomotion variants, and usage duration. The proposed method relies on learning from a motion capture dataset, but once the model is built, the method uses wearable sensors that enable torque estimation without the motion capture data. These methods also have potential uses for the design and testing of wearable robotic systems outside of a laboratory environment.
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Summary

Estimations of human joint torques can provide quantitative, clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Standard methods for estimating joint torques are limited to laboratory or clinical settings since they require expensive equipment to measure joint kinematics and ground reaction...

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A multi-task LSTM framework for improved early sepsis prediction

Summary

Early detection for sepsis, a high-mortality clinical condition, is important for improving patient outcomes. The performance of conventional deep learning methods degrades quickly as predictions are made several hours prior to the clinical definition. We adopt recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to improve early prediction of the onset of sepsis using times series of physiological measurements. Furthermore, physiological data is often missing and imputation is necessary. Absence of data might arise due to decisions made by clinical professionals which carries information. Using the missing data patterns into the learning process can further guide how much trust to place on imputed values. A new multi-task LSTM model is proposed that takes informative missingness into account during training that effectively attributes trust to temporal measurements. Experimental results demonstrate our method outperforms conventional CNN and LSTM models on the PhysioNet-2019 CiC early sepsis prediction challenge in terms of area under receiver-operating curve and precision-recall curve, and further improves upon calibration of prediction scores.
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Summary

Early detection for sepsis, a high-mortality clinical condition, is important for improving patient outcomes. The performance of conventional deep learning methods degrades quickly as predictions are made several hours prior to the clinical definition. We adopt recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to improve early prediction of the onset of sepsis using...

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GraphChallenge.org triangle counting performance [e-print]

Summary

The rise of graph analytic systems has created a need for new ways to measure and compare the capabilities of graph processing systems. The MIT/Amazon/IEEE Graph Challenge has been developed to provide a well-defined community venue for stimulating research and highlighting innovations in graph analysis software, hardware, algorithms, and systems. GraphChallenge.org provides a wide range of preparsed graph data sets, graph generators, mathematically defined graph algorithms, example serial implementations in a variety of languages, and specific metrics for measuring performance. The triangle counting component of GraphChallenge.org tests the performance of graph processing systems to count all the triangles in a graph and exercises key graph operations found in many graph algorithms. In 2017, 2018, and 2019 many triangle counting submissions were received from a wide range of authors and organizations. This paper presents a performance analysis of the best performers of these submissions. These submissions show that their state-of-the-art triangle counting execution time, Ttri, is a strong function of the number of edges in the graph, Ne, which improved significantly from 2017 (Ttri \approx (Ne/10^8)^4=3) to 2018 (Ttri \approx Ne/10^9) and remained comparable from 2018 to 2019. Graph Challenge provides a clear picture of current graph analysis systems and underscores the need for new innovations to achieve high performance on very large graphs
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Summary

The rise of graph analytic systems has created a need for new ways to measure and compare the capabilities of graph processing systems. The MIT/Amazon/IEEE Graph Challenge has been developed to provide a well-defined community venue for stimulating research and highlighting innovations in graph analysis software, hardware, algorithms, and systems...

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