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Boston community energy study - zonal analysis for urban microgrids

Published in:
MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report TR-1201

Summary

Superstorm Sandy illustrated the economic and human impact that severe weather can have on urban areas such as New York City. While flooding and wind damaged or destroyed some of the energy infrastructure, all installed microgrids in the New York City region remained operational during Sandy, including those at Princeton University, Goldman Sachs, New York University, and Co-op City. The resilience provided by these microgrids sparked renewed interest in pursuing more microgrid deployments as means to increase resiliency throughout the nation and in the face of many potential threats including severe weather events, and potentially terrorism. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been engaged with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the City of Boston in this Community Energy Study to explore the potential for microgrid deployment within Boston's thriving neighborhoods. Using hourly simulated building energy data for every building in Boston, provided by the Sustainable Design Lab on MIT campus, MIT Lincoln Laboratory was able to develop an approach that can identify zones within the city where microgrids could be implemented with a high return on investment in terms of resiliency, offering both cost savings and social benefit in the face of grid outages. An important part of this approach leverages a microgrid optimization tool developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with whom the MIT Lincoln Laboratory is now collaborating on microgrid modeling work. Using the microgrid optimization tool, along with building energy use data, forty-two community microgrids were identified, including ten multiuser microgrids, ten energy justice microgrids, and twenty-two emergency microgrids.
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Summary

Superstorm Sandy illustrated the economic and human impact that severe weather can have on urban areas such as New York City. While flooding and wind damaged or destroyed some of the energy infrastructure, all installed microgrids in the New York City region remained operational during Sandy, including those at Princeton...

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Sensitive detection and identification of isovanillin aerosol particles at the pg/cm^3 mass concentration level using Raman spectroscopy

Published in:
Aerosol Sci. Technol., Vol. 49, No. 9, 2015, pp. 753-6.

Summary

A compact Raman spectroscopy system with high sensitivity to chemical aerosols has been developed. This system has been used to detect isovanillin aerosols with mass concentration of 12 pg/cm3 in a 15 s signal integration period with a signal-to-noise ratio of 32. We believe this represents the lowest chemical aerosol concentration and signal integration period product ever reported for a Raman spectroscopy system. The Raman system includes (i) a 10 W, 532-nm cw laser, (ii) an aerosol flow cell, (iii) a 60x aerosol concentrator, (iv) an f/1.8 Raman spectrometer with a spectral range of 400-1400 cm^-1 and a resolution of 4 cm^-1, and (v) a low-noise CCD camera (1340 x 400 pixels). The collection efficiency of the Raman system has been determined to be 2.8%. Except for the laser cooling subsystem, the Raman system fits in a 0.61 m x 0.61 m x 0.61 m box.
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Summary

A compact Raman spectroscopy system with high sensitivity to chemical aerosols has been developed. This system has been used to detect isovanillin aerosols with mass concentration of 12 pg/cm3 in a 15 s signal integration period with a signal-to-noise ratio of 32. We believe this represents the lowest chemical aerosol...

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Development and application of spherically curved charge-coupled device imagers

Summary

Operation of a CCD imager on a curved focal surface offers advantages to flat focal planes, especially for lightweight, relatively simple optical systems. The first advantage is that the modulation transfer function can approach diffraction-limited performance for a spherical focal surface employed in large field-of-view or large-format imagers. The second advantage is that a curved focal surface maintains more uniform illumination as a function of radius from the field center. Examples of applications of curved imagers, described here, include a small compact imager and the large curved array used in the Space Surveillance Telescope. The operational characteristics and mechanical limits of an imager deformed to a 15 mm radius are also described.
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Summary

Operation of a CCD imager on a curved focal surface offers advantages to flat focal planes, especially for lightweight, relatively simple optical systems. The first advantage is that the modulation transfer function can approach diffraction-limited performance for a spherical focal surface employed in large field-of-view or large-format imagers. The second...

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Nanosatellites for Earth environmental monitoring: the MicroMAS project

Summary

The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a 3U cubesat (34x10x10 cm, 4.5 kg) hosting a passive microwave spectrometer operating near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line. The focus of the first MicroMAS mission (hereafter, MicroMAS-1) is to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a near-equatorial orbit at approximately 500-km altitude. A MicroMAS flight unit is currently being developed in anticipation of a 2014 launch. A parabolic reflector is mechanically rotated as the spacecraft orbits the earth, thus directing a cross-track scanned beam with FWHM beamwidth of 2.4-degrees, yielding an approximately 20-km diameter footprint at nadir incidence from a nominal altitude of 500 km. Radiometric calibration is carried out using observations of cold space, the earth?s limb, and an internal noise diode that is weakly coupled through the RF front-end electronics. A key technology feature is the development of an ultra-compact intermediate frequency processor module for channelization, detection, and A-to-D conversion. The antenna system and RF front-end electronics are highly integrated and miniaturized. A MicroMAS-2 mission is currently being planned using a multiband spectrometer operating near 118 and 183 GHz in a sunsynchronous orbit of approximately 800-km altitude. A HyMAS- 1 (Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Satellite) mission with approximately 50 channels near 118 and 183 GHz is also being planned. In this paper, the mission concept of operations will be discussed, the radiometer payload will be described, and the spacecraft subsystems (avionics, power, communications, attitude determination and control, and mechanical structures) will be summarized.
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Summary

The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a 3U cubesat (34x10x10 cm, 4.5 kg) hosting a passive microwave spectrometer operating near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line. The focus of the first MicroMAS mission (hereafter, MicroMAS-1) is to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a near-equatorial orbit at approximately...

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Design of an optical photon counting array receiver system for deep-space communications

Summary

Demand for increased capacity in deep-space to Earth communications systems continues to rise as sensor data rates climb and mission requirements expand. Optical freespace laser communications systems offer the potential for operating at data rates 10 to 1000 times that of current radiofrequency systems. A key element in an optical communications system is the Earth receiver. This paper reviews the design of a distributed photon-counting receiver array composed of four meter-class telescopes, developed as a part of the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration (MLCD) project. This design offers a cost-effective and adaptable alternative approach to traditional large, single-aperture receive elements while preserving the expected improvement in data rates enabled by free-space laser communications systems. Key challenges in developing distributed receivers and details of the MLCD design are discussed.
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Summary

Demand for increased capacity in deep-space to Earth communications systems continues to rise as sensor data rates climb and mission requirements expand. Optical freespace laser communications systems offer the potential for operating at data rates 10 to 1000 times that of current radiofrequency systems. A key element in an optical...

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Measurement of aerosol-particle trajectories using a structured laser beam

Summary

What is believed to be a new concept for the measurement of micrometer-sized particle trajectories in an inlet air stream is introduced. The technique uses a light source and a mask to generate a spatial pattern of light within a volume in space. Particles traverse the illumination volume and elastically scatter light to a photodetector where the signal is recorded in time. The detected scattering waveform is decoded to find the particle trajectory. A design is presented for the structured laser beam, and the accuracy of the technique in determining particle position is demonstrated. It is also demonstrated that the structured laser beam can be used to measure and then correct for the spatially dependent instrument-response function of an optical-scattering-based particle-sizing system for aerosols.
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Summary

What is believed to be a new concept for the measurement of micrometer-sized particle trajectories in an inlet air stream is introduced. The technique uses a light source and a mask to generate a spatial pattern of light within a volume in space. Particles traverse the illumination volume and elastically...

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Architectural trades for an advanced geostationary atmospheric sounding instrument

Summary

The process of formulating a remote sensing instrument design from a set of observational requirements involves a series of trade studies during which judgments are made between available design options. The outcome of this process is a system architecture which drives the size, weight, power consumption, cost, and technological risk of the instrument. In this paper, a set of trade studies are described which guided the development of a baseline sensor design to provide vertical profiles (soundings) of atmospheric temperature and humidity from future Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) platforms. Detailed trade studies presented include the choice between an interferometric versus a dispersive spectrometer, the optical design of the IR interferometer and visible imaging channel, the optimization of the instrument spatial response, the selection of detector array materials, operating temperatures, and array size, the thermal design for detector and optics cooling, and the electronics required to process detected interferograms into spectral radiance. The trade study process was validated through simulations of the radiometric performance of the instrument, and through simulated retrievals of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity. The flexibility of these system trades is emphasized, highlighting the differing outcomes that occur from this process as system requirements evolve. Observations are made with respect to the reliability and readiness of key technologies. The results of this study were disseminated to industry to assist their interpretation of, and responses to, system requirements provided by the U.S. Government.
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Summary

The process of formulating a remote sensing instrument design from a set of observational requirements involves a series of trade studies during which judgments are made between available design options. The outcome of this process is a system architecture which drives the size, weight, power consumption, cost, and technological risk...

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