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Quantum simulator of an open quantum system using superconducting qubits: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes

Published in:
New J. Phys., Vol. 14, October 2012, 105013.

Summary

Open quantum system approaches are widely used in the description of physical, chemical and biological systems. A famous example is electronic excitation transfer in the initial stage of photosynthesis, where harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center. This transport is affected by the motion of a structured vibrational environment, which makes simulations on a classical computer very demanding. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of complex open system dynamics with a precisely engineered quantum environment. Our setup is based on superconducting circuits, a well established technology. As an example, we demonstrate that it is feasible to simulate exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complex. Our approach allows for a controllable single-molecule simulation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian noise-correlation effects.
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Summary

Open quantum system approaches are widely used in the description of physical, chemical and biological systems. A famous example is electronic excitation transfer in the initial stage of photosynthesis, where harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center. This transport is affected by the motion of...

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Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter

Summary

Accurate conversion of wideband multi-GHz analog signals into the digital domain has long been a target of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) developers, driven by applications in radar systems, software radio, medical imaging, and communication systems. Aperture jitter has been a major bottleneck on the way towards higher speeds and better accuracy. Photonic ADCs, which perform sampling using ultra-stable optical pulse trains generated by mode-locked lasers, have been investigated for many years as a promising approach to overcome the jitter problem and bring ADC performance to new levels. This work demonstrates that the photonic approach can deliver on its promise by digitizing a 41 GHz signal with 7.0 effective bits using a photonic ADC built from discrete components. This accuracy corresponds to a timing jitter of 15 fs - a 4-5 times improvement over the performance of the best electronic ADCs which exist today. On the way towards an integrated photonic ADC, a silicon photonic chip with core photonic components was fabricated and used to digitize a 10 GHz signal with 3.5 effective bits. In these experiments, two wavelength channels were implemented, providing the overall sampling rate of 2.1 GSa/s. To show that photonic ADCs with larger channel counts are possible, a dual 20- channel silicon filter bank has been demonstrated.
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Summary

Accurate conversion of wideband multi-GHz analog signals into the digital domain has long been a target of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) developers, driven by applications in radar systems, software radio, medical imaging, and communication systems. Aperture jitter has been a major bottleneck on the way towards higher speeds and better accuracy...

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Compact external-cavity semiconductor mode-locked laser with quantum-well-intermixed modulator and saturable absorber

Published in:
IPC11, IEEE Photonics Conf., 9-13 October 2011, pp. 753-754.

Summary

We demonstrate a slab-coupled optical waveguide external-cavity mode-locked laser having unique bandedges for the amplifier, modulator and saturable absorber elements. An average output power of 50mW and timing jitter of 254fs is achieved at 1.5-GHz.
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Summary

We demonstrate a slab-coupled optical waveguide external-cavity mode-locked laser having unique bandedges for the amplifier, modulator and saturable absorber elements. An average output power of 50mW and timing jitter of 254fs is achieved at 1.5-GHz.

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Metastable superconducting qubit

Published in:
Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 104, No.2, 11 January 2010, 027002.

Summary

We propose a superconducting qubit design, based on a tunable rf SQUID and nanowire kinetic inductors, which has a dramatically reduced transverse electromagnetic coupling to its environment, so that its excited state should be metastable. If electromagnetic interactions are in fact responsible for the current excited-state decay rates of superconducting qubits, this design should result in a qubit lifetime orders of magnitude longer than currently possible. Furthermore, since accurate manipulation and readout of superconducting qubits is currently limited by spontaneous decay, much higher fidelities may be realizable with this design.
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Summary

We propose a superconducting qubit design, based on a tunable rf SQUID and nanowire kinetic inductors, which has a dramatically reduced transverse electromagnetic coupling to its environment, so that its excited state should be metastable. If electromagnetic interactions are in fact responsible for the current excited-state decay rates of superconducting...

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Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators

Published in:
IEEE J. Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron., Vol. 16, No. 1, January/February 2010, pp. 165-172.

Summary

An optical modulator in silicon based on a diode structure has been operated in both forward and reverse bias. This modulator achieves near state-of-the-art performance in both modes, thereby making this device idea for comparing the two modes of operation. In reverse bias, the device has a V[pi]L of 4.9 V-cm and a bandwidth of 26GHz. In forward bias, the device is very sensitive, a V[pi]L a slow as 0.0025 V-cm has been achieved, but the bandwidth is only 100 MHz. A ndw geometyr for a reverse-bias device is proposed, and it is predicted to achieve a V[pi]L of 0.5V.cm.
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Summary

An optical modulator in silicon based on a diode structure has been operated in both forward and reverse bias. This modulator achieves near state-of-the-art performance in both modes, thereby making this device idea for comparing the two modes of operation. In reverse bias, the device has a V[pi]L of 4.9...

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High-fidelity quantum operations on superconducting qubits in the presence of noise

Published in:
Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 101, No. 7, 15 August 2008, 070501.

Summary

We present a scheme for implementing quantum operations with superconducting qubits. Our approach "coupler" qubit to mediate a controllable interaction between data qubits, pulse sequences which strongly mitigate the effects of 1/f flux noise, and a high-Q resonator-based local memory. We develop a Monte Carlo simulation technique capable of describing arbitrary noise-induced dephasing and decay, and demonstrate in this system a set of universal gate operations with O(10^-5) error probabilities in the presence of experimentally measured levels of 1=f noise. We then add relaxation and quantify the decay times required to maintain this error level.
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Summary

We present a scheme for implementing quantum operations with superconducting qubits. Our approach "coupler" qubit to mediate a controllable interaction between data qubits, pulse sequences which strongly mitigate the effects of 1/f flux noise, and a high-Q resonator-based local memory. We develop a Monte Carlo simulation technique capable of describing...

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All silicon infrared photodiodes: photo response and effects of processing temperature

Summary

CMOS compatible infrared waveguide Si photodiodes are made responsive from 1100 to 1750 nm by Si+ implantation and annealing. This article compares diodes fabricated using two annealing temperatures, 300 and 475C. 0.25-mm-long diodes annealed to 300C have a response to 1539 nm radiation of 0.1 A W-1 at a reverse bias of 5 V and 1.2 A W-1 at 20 V. 3-mm-long diodes processed to 475C exhibited two states, L1 and L2, with photo responses of 0.3 +/-0.1 A W-1 at 5 V and 0.7 +/-10.2 A W-1 at 20 V for the L1 state and 0.5 +/-0.2 A W-1 at 5 V and 4 to 20 A W-1 at 20 V for the L2 state. The diodes can be switched between L1 and L2. The bandwidths vary from 10 to 20 GHz. These diodes will generate electrical power from the incident radiation with efficiencies from 4 to 10 %.
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Summary

CMOS compatible infrared waveguide Si photodiodes are made responsive from 1100 to 1750 nm by Si+ implantation and annealing. This article compares diodes fabricated using two annealing temperatures, 300 and 475C. 0.25-mm-long diodes annealed to 300C have a response to 1539 nm radiation of 0.1 A W-1 at a reverse...

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Design of an optical photon counting array receiver system for deep-space communications

Summary

Demand for increased capacity in deep-space to Earth communications systems continues to rise as sensor data rates climb and mission requirements expand. Optical freespace laser communications systems offer the potential for operating at data rates 10 to 1000 times that of current radiofrequency systems. A key element in an optical communications system is the Earth receiver. This paper reviews the design of a distributed photon-counting receiver array composed of four meter-class telescopes, developed as a part of the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration (MLCD) project. This design offers a cost-effective and adaptable alternative approach to traditional large, single-aperture receive elements while preserving the expected improvement in data rates enabled by free-space laser communications systems. Key challenges in developing distributed receivers and details of the MLCD design are discussed.
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Summary

Demand for increased capacity in deep-space to Earth communications systems continues to rise as sensor data rates climb and mission requirements expand. Optical freespace laser communications systems offer the potential for operating at data rates 10 to 1000 times that of current radiofrequency systems. A key element in an optical...

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Afterpulsing in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 1.06um wavelength

Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these devices. For 30-um-diam, 1.06-um-wavelength InGaAsP/InP APDs operated at 290 K and 4 V overbias, we obtained a dominant trap lifetime of td=0.32 us, a trap energy of 0.11 eV, and a baseline dark count rate 245 kHz.
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Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these...

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Technical Assessment of Satellites for CONUS Air Traffic Control, Volume I - Coordinated Aircraft-To-Satellite Techniques

Published in:
Project Report ATC-26,I, MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Summary

A number of satellite system techniques have been suggested as candidates to provide ATC surveillance, communication, and/or navigation service over CONUS. All techniques perform position determination by multilateration using a constellation of satellites. They can be categorized as follows: 1) Coordinated Aircraft-to-Satellite Techniques (CAST), 2) Random Access Aircraft-to-Satellite Techniques (RAST), and 3) Satellite-to-Aircraft Techniques (SAT). A technical assessment is made of the various techniques with no one particular technique emerging as superior; several feasible alternatives are identified. The assessment indicates that satellite bases techniques for CONUS ATC can be developed without relying on high risk technology. This volume deals with CAST, RAST and SAT are treated in companion volumes. A system employing CAST could operate by having each aircraft transmit only in response to interrogation from a satellite. The position of the aircraft is then obtained by multilateration using the arrival times of its response at coordinating the interrogations, mutual interference between different response can be avoided. The critical technical aspects of CAST are explored with special emphasis on signaling formats, avionics, the satellite antenna and susceptibility to jamming.
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Summary

A number of satellite system techniques have been suggested as candidates to provide ATC surveillance, communication, and/or navigation service over CONUS. All techniques perform position determination by multilateration using a constellation of satellites. They can be categorized as follows: 1) Coordinated Aircraft-to-Satellite Techniques (CAST), 2) Random Access Aircraft-to-Satellite Techniques (RAST)...

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