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Artificial intelligence: short history, present developments, and future outlook, final report

Summary

The Director's Office at MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) requested a comprehensive study on artificial intelligence (AI) focusing on present applications and future science and technology (S&T) opportunities in the Cyber Security and Information Sciences Division (Division 5). This report elaborates on the main results from the study. Since the AI field is evolving so rapidly, the study scope was to look at the recent past and ongoing developments to lead to a set of findings and recommendations. It was important to begin with a short AI history and a lay-of-the-land on representative developments across the Department of Defense (DoD), intelligence communities (IC), and Homeland Security. These areas are addressed in more detail within the report. A main deliverable from the study was to formulate an end-to-end AI canonical architecture that was suitable for a range of applications. The AI canonical architecture, formulated in the study, serves as the guiding framework for all the sections in this report. Even though the study primarily focused on cyber security and information sciences, the enabling technologies are broadly applicable to many other areas. Therefore, we dedicate a full section on enabling technologies in Section 3. The discussion on enabling technologies helps the reader clarify the distinction among AI, machine learning algorithms, and specific techniques to make an end-to-end AI system viable. In order to understand what is the lay-of-the-land in AI, study participants performed a fairly wide reach within MIT LL and external to the Laboratory (government, commercial companies, defense industrial base, peers, academia, and AI centers). In addition to the study participants (shown in the next section under acknowledgements), we also assembled an internal review team (IRT). The IRT was extremely helpful in providing feedback and in helping with the formulation of the study briefings, as we transitioned from datagathering mode to the study synthesis. The format followed throughout the study was to highlight relevant content that substantiates the study findings, and identify a set of recommendations. An important finding is the significant AI investment by the so-called "big 6" commercial companies. These major commercial companies are Google, Amazon, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, and IBM. They dominate in the AI ecosystem research and development (R&D) investments within the U.S. According to a recent McKinsey Global Institute report, cumulative R&D investment in AI amounts to about $30 billion per year. This amount is substantially higher than the R&D investment within the DoD, IC, and Homeland Security. Therefore, the DoD will need to be very strategic about investing where needed, while at the same time leveraging the technologies already developed and available from a wide range of commercial applications. As we will discuss in Section 1 as part of the AI history, MIT LL has been instrumental in developing advanced AI capabilities. For example, MIT LL has a long history in the development of human language technologies (HLT) by successfully applying machine learning algorithms to difficult problems in speech recognition, machine translation, and speech understanding. Section 4 elaborates on prior applications of these technologies, as well as newer applications in the context of multi-modalities (e.g., speech, text, images, and video). An end-to-end AI system is very well suited to enhancing the capabilities of human language analysis. Section 5 discusses AI's nascent role in cyber security. There have been cases where AI has already provided important benefits. However, much more research is needed in both the application of AI to cyber security and the associated vulnerability to the so-called adversarial AI. Adversarial AI is an area very critical to the DoD, IC, and Homeland Security, where malicious adversaries can disrupt AI systems and make them untrusted in operational environments. This report concludes with specific recommendations by formulating the way forward for Division 5 and a discussion of S&T challenges and opportunities. The S&T challenges and opportunities are centered on the key elements of the AI canonical architecture to strengthen the AI capabilities across the DoD, IC, and Homeland Security in support of national security.
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Summary

The Director's Office at MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) requested a comprehensive study on artificial intelligence (AI) focusing on present applications and future science and technology (S&T) opportunities in the Cyber Security and Information Sciences Division (Division 5). This report elaborates on the main results from the study. Since the...

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Predicting and analyzing factors in patent litigation

Published in:
30th Conf. on Neural Information Processing System, NIPS 2016, 5-10 December 2016.

Summary

Patent litigation is an expensive and time-consuming process. To minimize its impact on the participants in the patent lifecycle, automatic determination of litigation potential is a compelling machine learning application. In this paper, we consider preliminary methods for the prediction of a patent being involved in litigation using metadata, content, and graph features. Metadata features are top-level easily-extractable features, i.e., assignee, number of claims, etc. The content feature performs lexical analysis of the claims associated to a patent. Graph features use relational learning to summarize patent references. We apply our methods on US patents using a labeled data set. Prior work has focused on metadata-only features, but we show that both graph and content features have significant predictive capability. Additionally, fusing all features results in improved performance. We also perform a preliminary examination of some of the qualitative factors that may have significant importance in patent litigation.
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Summary

Patent litigation is an expensive and time-consuming process. To minimize its impact on the participants in the patent lifecycle, automatic determination of litigation potential is a compelling machine learning application. In this paper, we consider preliminary methods for the prediction of a patent being involved in litigation using metadata, content...

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Writing your first paper: from code to research

Published in:
Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, 19-21 October 2016.

Summary

'Publish or perish,' once a term used to refer to the pressure placed on professors to publish their research has since expanded to apply to students and professionals in industry. There are numerous benefits to doing research and publishing the results, including personal satisfaction, career advancement, and prestige. In this session we will discuss how to begin doing research and write a first paper.
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Summary

'Publish or perish,' once a term used to refer to the pressure placed on professors to publish their research has since expanded to apply to students and professionals in industry. There are numerous benefits to doing research and publishing the results, including personal satisfaction, career advancement, and prestige. In this...

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A fun and engaging interface for crowdsourcing named entities

Published in:
10th Language Resources and Evaluation Conf., LREC 2016, 23-28 May 2016.

Summary

There are many current problems in natural language processing that are best solved by training algorithms on an annotated in-language, in-domain corpus. The more representative the training corpus is of the test data, the better the algorithm will perform, but also the less likely it is that such a corpus has already been annotated. Annotating corpora for natural language processing tasks is typically a time consuming and expensive process. In this paper, we provide a case study in using crowd sourcing to curate an in-domain corpus for named entity recognition, a common problem in natural language processing. In particular, we present our use of fun, engaging user interfaces as a way to entice workers to partake in our crowd sourcing task while avoiding inflating our payments in a way that would attract more mercenary workers than conscientious ones. Additionally, we provide a survey of alternate interfaces for collecting annotations of named entities and compare our approach to those systems.
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Summary

There are many current problems in natural language processing that are best solved by training algorithms on an annotated in-language, in-domain corpus. The more representative the training corpus is of the test data, the better the algorithm will perform, but also the less likely it is that such a corpus...

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A reverse approach to named entity extraction and linking in microposts

Published in:
Proc. of the 6th Workshop on "Making Sense of Microposts" (part of: 25th Int. World Wide Web Conf., 11 April 2016), #Microposts2016, pp. 67-69.

Summary

In this paper, we present a pipeline for named entity extraction and linking that is designed specifically for noisy, grammatically inconsistent domains where traditional named entity techniques perform poorly. Our approach leverages a large knowledge base to improve entity recognition, while maintaining the use of traditional NER to identify mentions that are not co-referent with any entities in the knowledge base.
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Summary

In this paper, we present a pipeline for named entity extraction and linking that is designed specifically for noisy, grammatically inconsistent domains where traditional named entity techniques perform poorly. Our approach leverages a large knowledge base to improve entity recognition, while maintaining the use of traditional NER to identify mentions...

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Named entity recognition in 140 characters or less

Published in:
Proc. of the 6th Workshop on "Making Sense of Microposts" (part of: 25th Int. World Wide Web Conf., 11 April 2016), #Microposts2016, pp. 78-79.

Summary

In this paper, we explore the problem of recognizing named entities in microposts, a genre with notoriously little context surrounding each named entity and inconsistent use of grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling conventions by authors. In spite of the challenges associated with information extraction from microposts, it remains an increasingly important genre. This paper presents the MIT Information Extraction Toolkit (MITIE) and explores its adaptability to the micropost genre.
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Summary

In this paper, we explore the problem of recognizing named entities in microposts, a genre with notoriously little context surrounding each named entity and inconsistent use of grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling conventions by authors. In spite of the challenges associated with information extraction from microposts, it remains an increasingly...

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Recommender systems for the Department of Defense and intelligence community

Summary

Recommender systems, which selectively filter information for users, can hasten analysts' responses to complex events such as cyber attacks. Lincoln Laboratory's research on recommender systems may bring the capabilities of these systems to analysts in both the Department of Defense and intelligence community.
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Summary

Recommender systems, which selectively filter information for users, can hasten analysts' responses to complex events such as cyber attacks. Lincoln Laboratory's research on recommender systems may bring the capabilities of these systems to analysts in both the Department of Defense and intelligence community.

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Recommender systems for the Department of Defense and intelligence community

Summary

Recommender systems, which selectively filter information for users, can hasten analysts' responses to complex events such as cyber attacks. Lincoln Laboratory's research on recommender systems may bring the capabilities of these systems to analysts in both the Department of Defense and intelligence community.
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Summary

Recommender systems, which selectively filter information for users, can hasten analysts' responses to complex events such as cyber attacks. Lincoln Laboratory's research on recommender systems may bring the capabilities of these systems to analysts in both the Department of Defense and intelligence community.

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Talking Head Detection by Likelihood-Ratio Test(220.2 KB)

Published in:
Second Workshop on Speech, Language, Audio in Multimedia

Summary

Detecting accurately when a person whose face is visible in an audio-visual medium is the audible speaker is an enabling technology with a number of useful applications. The likelihood-ratio test formulation and feature signal processing employed here allow the use of high-dimensional feature sets in the audio and visual domain, and the approach appears to have good detection performance for AV segments as short as a few seconds.
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Summary

Detecting accurately when a person whose face is visible in an audio-visual medium is the audible speaker is an enabling technology with a number of useful applications. The likelihood-ratio test formulation and feature signal processing employed here allow the use of high-dimensional feature sets in the audio and visual domain...

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Talking head detection by likelihood-ratio test

Published in:
2nd Int. Workshop on Speech, Language and Audio in Multimedia, SLAM, 11-12 September 2014.

Summary

Detecting accurately when a person whose face is visible in an audio-visual medium is the audible speaker is an enabling technology with a number of useful applications. These include fused audio/visual speaker recognition, AV (audio/visual) segmentation and diarization as well as AV synchronization. The likelihood-ratio test formulation and feature signal processing employed here allow the use of high-dimensional feature sets in the audio and visual domain, and the approach appears to have good detection performance for AV segments as short as a few seconds. Computation costs for the resulting algorithm are modest, typically much less than the front-end face detection system. While the resulting system requires model training, only true condition training (i.e. video where the talking speaker is audible) is required.
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Summary

Detecting accurately when a person whose face is visible in an audio-visual medium is the audible speaker is an enabling technology with a number of useful applications. These include fused audio/visual speaker recognition, AV (audio/visual) segmentation and diarization as well as AV synchronization. The likelihood-ratio test formulation and feature signal...

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