Sheep, goats, lambs and wolves: a statistical analysis of speaker performance in the NIST 1998 speaker recognition evaluation
Performance variability in speech and speaker recognition systems can be attributed to many factors. One major factor, which is often acknowledged but seldom analyzed, is inherent differences in the recognizability of different speakers. In speaker recognition systems such differences are characterized by the use of animal names for different types of speakers, including sheep, goats, lambs and wolves, depending on their behavior with respect to automatic recognition systems. In this paper we propose statistical tests for the existence of these animals and apply these tests to hunt for such animals using results from the 1998 NIST speaker recognition evaluation.