A new Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) system concept combining GPS-based positions with Mode S data communications is described. Several potential applications of this concept are presented with emphasis on surface surveillance at airports. The navigation and data link performance are analyzed. Compact ADS position formats are included. The results of the first tests at Hanscom Field, demonstrating the feasibility of the spontaneous broadcast of ADS positions using Mode S messages are presented. Test aircraft, vehicles, avionics equipment and the ground system configuration are described. Avionics standards and GPS interface requirements are discussed. Multipath and airport surface coverage issues are addressed. Further testing in an operational environment is continuing at Logan Airport.