The continuing progress of Moore's law has enabled the development of radar systems that simultaneously transmit and receive multiple coded waveforms from multiple phase centers and to process them in ways that have been unavailable in the past. The signals available for processing from these Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) radar systems appear as spatial samples corresponding to the convolution of the transmit and receive aperture phase centers. The samples provide the ability to excite and measure the channel that consists of the transmit/receive propagation paths, the target and incidental scattering or clutter. These signals may be processed and combined to form an adaptive coherent transmit beam, or to search an extended area with high resolution in a single dwell. Adaptively combining the received data provides the effect of adaptively controlling the transmit beamshape and the spatial extent provides improved track-while-scan accuracy. This paper describes the theory behind the improved surveillance radar performance and illustrates this with measurements from experimental MIMO radars.