The purpose of this section is to discuss a method of measuring the degree to which the essential meaning of the original text is communicated in the MT output. We view this test to be a measurement of the fundamental goal of MT; that is, to convey information accurately from one language to another. We conducted a series of experiments in which educated native readers of English responded to test questions about translated versions of texts originally written in Arabic and Chinese. We compared the results for those subjects using machine translations of the texts with those using professional reference translations. These comparisons serve as a baseline for determining the level of foreign language reading comprehension that can be achieved by a native English reader relying on machine translation technology. This also allows us to explore the relationship between the current, broadly accepted automatic measures of performance for machine translation and a test derived from the Defense Language Proficiency Test, which is used throughout the Defense Department for measuring foreign language proficiency. Our goal is to put MT system performance evaluation into terms that are meaningful to US government consumers of MT output.