Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purposes of involuntary labor and sexual exploitation. It affects tens of million of victims worldwide and generates tens of billions of dollars in illicit profits annually. While agencies across the U.S. Government employ a diverse range of resources to combat human trafficking in the U.S. and abroad, trafficking operations remain challenging to measure, investigate, and interdict. Within the Department of Homeland Security, the Science and Technology Directorate is addressing these challenges by incorporating computational social science research into their counter-human trafficking approach. As part of this approach, the Directorate tasked an interdisciplinary team of national security researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory, a federally funded research and development center, to undertake a detailed examination of the human trafficking response across the Homeland Security Enterprise. The first phase of this effort was a government-wide systems analysis of major counter-trafficking thrust areas, including law enforcement and prosecution; public health and emergency medicine; victim services; and policy and legislation. The second phase built on this systems analysis to develop a human trafficking technology roadmap and implementation strategy for the Science and Technology Directorate, which is presented in this document.