This document provides a functional description of the Mode S Beacon System, a combined secondary surveillance radar (beacon) and ground-air-ground data link system capable of providing the aircraft surveillance and communications necessary to support ATC automation in future traffic environments. Mode S is capable of common-channel interoperation with the current ATC beacon system, and may be implemented at low user cost over an extended transition period. Mode S will provide the surveillance and communication performance required by the ATC automation, the reliable communications needed to support data link services, and the capability of operating with a terminal or enroute, radar digitizer-equipped, ATC surveillance radar. The material contained in this document updates and expands the information presented in "Mode S Beacon System: Functional Description", DOT/FAA/PM-83/8, 215 July 1983.