Nanocomposite approaches toward pellicles for 157-nm lithography
January 1, 2005
Pellicle materials for use at 157 nm must display sufficient transparency at this wavelength and adequate lifetimes to be useful. We blended a leading candidate fluoropolymer with silica nanoparticles to examine the effect on both the transparency and lifetime of the pellicle. It is anticipated that these composite materials may increase the lifetime by perhaps quenching reactive species and/or by dilution, without severely decreasing the 157-nm transmission. Particles surface-modified with fluorinated moieties are also investigated. The additives are introduced as stable nanoparticle dispersions to casting solutions of the fluoropolymers. The properties of these solutions, films, and the radiationinduced darkening rates are reported. The latter are reduced in proportion to the dilution of the polymer, but there is no evidence that the nanoparticles act as radical scavengers.