This paper describes a new method for task-based speech-to-speech machine translation evaluation, in which tasks are defined and assessed according to independent published standards, both for the military tasks performed and for the foreign language skill levels used. We analyze task success rates and automatic MT evaluation scores (BLEU and METEOR) for 220 role-play dialogs. Each role-play team consisted of one native English-speaking soldier role player, one native Pashto-speaking local national role player, and one Pashto/English interpreter. The overall PASS score, averaged over all of the MT dialogs, was 44%. The average PASS rate for HT was 95%, which is important because a PASS requires that the role-players know the tasks. Without a high PASS rate in the HT condition, we could not be sure that the MT condition was not being unfairly penalized. We learned that success rates depended as much on task simplicity as it did upon the translation condition: 67% of simple, base-case scenarios were successfully completed using MT, whereas only 35% of contrasting scenarios with even minor obstacles received passing scores. We observed that MT had the greatest chance of success when the task was simple and the language complexity needs were low.