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GraphChallenge.org sparse deep neural network performance [e-print]

Summary

The MIT/IEEE/Amazon GraphChallenge.org encourages community approaches to developing new solutions for analyzing graphs and sparse data. Sparse AI analytics present unique scalability difficulties. The Sparse Deep Neural Network (DNN) Challenge draws upon prior challenges from machine learning, high performance computing, and visual analytics to create a challenge that is reflective of emerging sparse AI systems. The sparse DNN challenge is based on a mathematically well-defined DNN inference computation and can be implemented in any programming environment. In 2019 several sparse DNN challenge submissions were received from a wide range of authors and organizations. This paper presents a performance analysis of the best performers of these submissions. These submissions show that their state-of-the-art sparse DNN execution time, TDNN, is a strong function of the number of DNN operations performed, Nop. The sparse DNN challenge provides a clear picture of current sparse DNN systems and underscores the need for new innovations to achieve high performance on very large sparse DNNs.
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Summary

The MIT/IEEE/Amazon GraphChallenge.org encourages community approaches to developing new solutions for analyzing graphs and sparse data. Sparse AI analytics present unique scalability difficulties. The Sparse Deep Neural Network (DNN) Challenge draws upon prior challenges from machine learning, high performance computing, and visual analytics to create a challenge that is reflective...

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75,000,000,000 streaming inserts/second using hierarchical hypersparse GraphBLAS matrices

Summary

The SuiteSparse GraphBLAS C-library implements high performance hypersparse matrices with bindings to a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave). GraphBLAS provides a lightweight in-memory database implementation of hypersparse matrices that are ideal for analyzing many types of network data, while providing rigorous mathematical guarantees, such as linearity. Streaming updates of hypersparse matrices put enormous pressure on the memory hierarchy. This work benchmarks an implementation of hierarchical hypersparse matrices that reduces memory pressure and dramatically increases the update rate into a hypersparse matrices. The parameters of hierarchical hypersparse matrices rely on controlling the number of entries in each level in the hierarchy before an update is cascaded. The parameters are easily tunable to achieve optimal performance for a variety of applications. Hierarchical hypersparse matrices achieve over 1,000,000 updates per second in a single instance. Scaling to 31,000 instances of hierarchical hypersparse matrices arrays on 1,100 server nodes on the MIT SuperCloud achieved a sustained update rate of 75,000,000,000 updates per second. This capability allows the MIT SuperCloud to analyze extremely large streaming network data sets.
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Summary

The SuiteSparse GraphBLAS C-library implements high performance hypersparse matrices with bindings to a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave). GraphBLAS provides a lightweight in-memory database implementation of hypersparse matrices that are ideal for analyzing many types of network data, while providing rigorous mathematical guarantees, such as linearity. Streaming updates...

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AI data wrangling with associative arrays [e-print]

Published in:
Submitted to Northeast Database Day, NEDB 2020, https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.06731

Summary

The AI revolution is data driven. AI "data wrangling" is the process by which unusable data is transformed to support AI algorithm development (training) and deployment (inference). Significant time is devoted to translating diverse data representations supporting the many query and analysis steps found in an AI pipeline. Rigorous mathematical representations of these data enables data translation and analysis optimization within and across steps. Associative array algebra provides a mathematical foundation that naturally describes the tabular structures and set mathematics that are the basis of databases. Likewise, the matrix operations and corresponding inference/training calculations used by neural networks are also well described by associative arrays. More surprisingly, a general denormalized form of hierarchical formats, such as XML and JSON, can be readily constructed. Finally, pivot tables, which are among the most widely used data analysis tools, naturally emerge from associative array constructors. A common foundation in associative arrays provides interoperability guarantees, proving that their operations are linear systems with rigorous mathematical properties, such as, associativity, commutativity, and distributivity that are critical to reordering optimizations.
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Summary

The AI revolution is data driven. AI "data wrangling" is the process by which unusable data is transformed to support AI algorithm development (training) and deployment (inference). Significant time is devoted to translating diverse data representations supporting the many query and analysis steps found in an AI pipeline. Rigorous mathematical...

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Cultivating professional technical skills and understanding through hands-on online learning experiences

Published in:
2019 IEEE Learning with MOOCS, LWMOOCS, 23-25 October 2019.

Summary

Life-long learning is necessary for all professions because the technologies, tools and skills required for success over the course of a career expand and change. Professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields face particular challenges as new multi-disciplinary methods, e.g. Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, mature to replace those learned in undergraduate or graduate programs. Traditionally, industry, professional societies and university programs have provided professional development. While these provide opportunities to develop deeper understanding in STEM specialties and stay current with new techniques, the constraints on formal classes and workshops preclude the possibility of Just-In-Time Mastery Learning, particularly for new domains. The MIT Lincoln Laboratory Supercomputing Center (LLSC) and MIT Supercloud teams have developed online course offerings specifically designed to provide a way for adult learners to build their own educational path based on their immediate needs, problems and schedules. To satisfy adult learners, the courses are formulated as a series of challenges and strategies. Using this perspective, the courses incorporate targeted theory supported by hands-on practice. The focus of this paper is the design of Mastery, Just-in-Time MOOC courses that address the full space of hands-on learning requirements, from digital to analog. The discussion centers on the design of project-based exercises for professional technical education courses. The case studies highlight examples from courses that incorporate practice ranging from the construction of a small radar used for real world data collection and processing to the development of high performance computing applications.
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Summary

Life-long learning is necessary for all professions because the technologies, tools and skills required for success over the course of a career expand and change. Professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields face particular challenges as new multi-disciplinary methods, e.g. Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, mature to replace...

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Hypersparse neural network analysis of large-scale internet traffic

Published in:
IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conf., HPEC, 24-26 September 2019.

Summary

The Internet is transforming our society, necessitating a quantitative understanding of Internet traffic. Our team collects and curates the largest publicly available Internet traffic data containing 50 billion packets. Utilizing a novel hypersparse neural network analysis of "video" streams of this traffic using 10,000 processors in the MIT SuperCloud reveals a new phenomena: the importance of otherwise unseen leaf nodes and isolated links in Internet traffic. Our neural network approach further shows that a two-parameter modified Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution accurately describes a wide variety of source/destination statistics on moving sample windows ranging from 100,000 to 100,000,000 packets over collections that span years and continents. The inferred model parameters distinguish different network streams and the model leaf parameter strongly correlates with the fraction of the traffic in different underlying network topologies. The hypersparse neural network pipeline is highly adaptable and different network statistics and training models can be incorporated with simple changes to the image filter functions.
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Summary

The Internet is transforming our society, necessitating a quantitative understanding of Internet traffic. Our team collects and curates the largest publicly available Internet traffic data containing 50 billion packets. Utilizing a novel hypersparse neural network analysis of "video" streams of this traffic using 10,000 processors in the MIT SuperCloud reveals...

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Sparse Deep Neural Network graph challenge

Published in:
IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conf., HPEC, 24-26 September 2019.

Summary

The MIT/IEEE/Amazon GraphChallenge.org encourages community approaches to developing new solutions for analyzing graphs and sparse data. Sparse AI analytics present unique scalability difficulties. The proposed Sparse Deep Neural Network (DNN) Challenge draws upon prior challenges from machine learning, high performance computing, and visual analytics to create a challenge that is reflective of emerging sparse AI systems. The Sparse DNN Challenge is based on a mathematically well-defined DNN inference computation and can be implemented in any programming environment. Sparse DNN inference is amenable to both vertex-centric implementations and array-based implementations (e.g., using the GraphBLAS.org standard). The computations are simple enough that performance predictions can be made based on simple computing hardware models. The input data sets are derived from the MNIST handwritten letters. The surrounding I/O and verification provide the context for each sparse DNN inference that allows rigorous definition of both the input and the output. Furthermore, since the proposed sparse DNN challenge is scalable in both problem size and hardware, it can be used to measure and quantitatively compare a wide range of present day and future systems. Reference implementations have been implemented and their serial and parallel performance have been measured. Specifications, data, and software are publicly available at GraphChallenge.org.
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Summary

The MIT/IEEE/Amazon GraphChallenge.org encourages community approaches to developing new solutions for analyzing graphs and sparse data. Sparse AI analytics present unique scalability difficulties. The proposed Sparse Deep Neural Network (DNN) Challenge draws upon prior challenges from machine learning, high performance computing, and visual analytics to create a challenge that is...

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Streaming 1.9 billion hyperspace network updates per second with D4M

Summary

The Dynamic Distributed Dimensional Data Model (D4M) library implements associative arrays in a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave) and provides a lightweight in-memory database implementation of hypersparse arrays that are ideal for analyzing many types of network data. D4M relies on associative arrays which combine properties of spreadsheets, databases, matrices, graphs, and networks, while providing rigorous mathematical guarantees, such as linearity. Streaming updates of D4M associative arrays put enormous pressure on the memory hierarchy. This work describes the design and performance optimization of an implementation of hierarchical associative arrays that reduces memory pressure and dramatically increases the update rate into an associative array. The parameters of hierarchical associative arrays rely on controlling the number of entries in each level in the hierarchy before an update is cascaded. The parameters are easily tunable to achieve optimal performance for a variety of applications. Hierarchical arrays achieve over 40,000 updates per second in a single instance. Scaling to 34,000 instances of hierarchical D4M associative arrays on 1,100 server nodes on the MIT SuperCloud achieved a sustained update rate of 1,900,000,000 updates per second. This capability allows the MIT SuperCloud to analyze extremely large streaming network data sets.
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Summary

The Dynamic Distributed Dimensional Data Model (D4M) library implements associative arrays in a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave) and provides a lightweight in-memory database implementation of hypersparse arrays that are ideal for analyzing many types of network data. D4M relies on associative arrays which combine properties of spreadsheets...

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A billion updates per second using 30,000 hierarchical in-memory D4M databases

Summary

Analyzing large scale networks requires high performance streaming updates of graph representations of these data. Associative arrays are mathematical objects combining properties of spreadsheets, databases, matrices, and graphs, and are well-suited for representing and analyzing streaming network data. The Dynamic Distributed Dimensional Data Model (D4M) library implements associative arrays in a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave) and provides a lightweight in-memory database. Associative arrays are designed for block updates. Streaming updates to a large associative array requires a hierarchical implementation to optimize the performance of the memory hierarchy. Running 34,000 instances of a hierarchical D4M associative arrays on 1,100 server nodes on the MIT SuperCloud achieved a sustained update rate of 1,900,000,000 updates per second. This capability allows the MIT SuperCloud to analyze extremely large streaming network data sets.
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Summary

Analyzing large scale networks requires high performance streaming updates of graph representations of these data. Associative arrays are mathematical objects combining properties of spreadsheets, databases, matrices, and graphs, and are well-suited for representing and analyzing streaming network data. The Dynamic Distributed Dimensional Data Model (D4M) library implements associative arrays in...

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Hyperscaling internet graph analysis with D4M on the MIT SuperCloud

Summary

Detecting anomalous behavior in network traffic is a major challenge due to the volume and velocity of network traffic. For example, a 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection can generate over 50 MB/s of packet headers. For global network providers, this challenge can be amplified by many orders of magnitude. Development of novel computer network traffic analytics requires: high level programming environments, massive amount of packet capture (PCAP) data, and diverse data products for "at scale" algorithm pipeline development. D4M (Dynamic Distributed Dimensional Data Model) combines the power of sparse linear algebra, associative arrays, parallel processing, and distributed databases (such as SciDB and Apache Accumulo) to provide a scalable data and computation system that addresses the big data problems associated with network analytics development. Combining D4M with the MIT SuperCloud manycore processors and parallel storage system enables network analysts to interactively process massive amounts of data in minutes. To demonstrate these capabilities, we have implemented a representative analytics pipeline in D4M and benchmarked it on 96 hours of Gigabit PCAP data with MIT SuperCloud. The entire pipeline from uncompressing the raw files to database ingest was implemented in 135 lines of D4M code and achieved speedups of over 20,000.
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Summary

Detecting anomalous behavior in network traffic is a major challenge due to the volume and velocity of network traffic. For example, a 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection can generate over 50 MB/s of packet headers. For global network providers, this challenge can be amplified by many orders of magnitude. Development of...

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Interactive supercomputing on 40,000 cores for machine learning and data analysis

Summary

Interactive massively parallel computations are critical for machine learning and data analysis. These computations are a staple of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Supercomputing Center (LLSC) and has required the LLSC to develop unique interactive supercomputing capabilities. Scaling interactive machine learning frameworks, such as TensorFlow, and data analysis environments, such as MATLAB/Octave, to tens of thousands of cores presents many technical challenges – in particular, rapidly dispatching many tasks through a scheduler, such as Slurm, and starting many instances of applications with thousands of dependencies. Careful tuning of launches and prepositioning of applications overcome these challenges and allow the launching of thousands of tasks in seconds on a 40,000-core supercomputer. Specifically, this work demonstrates launching 32,000 TensorFlow processes in 4 seconds and launching 262,000 Octave processes in 40 seconds. These capabilities allow researchers to rapidly explore novel machine learning architecture and data analysis algorithms.
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Summary

Interactive massively parallel computations are critical for machine learning and data analysis. These computations are a staple of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Supercomputing Center (LLSC) and has required the LLSC to develop unique interactive supercomputing capabilities. Scaling interactive machine learning frameworks, such as TensorFlow, and data analysis environments, such as...

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