Current clinical tests lack the sensitivity needed for detecting subtle balance impairments associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Patient-reported symptoms can be significant and have a huge impact on daily life, but impairments may remain undetected or poorly quantified using clinical measures. Our central hypothesis was that provocative sensorimotor perturbations, delivered in a highly instrumented, immersive virtual environment, would challenge sensory subsystems recruited for balance through conflicting multi-sensory evidence, and therefore reveal that not all subsystems are performing optimally. The results show that, as compared to standard clinical tests, the provocative perturbations illuminate balance impairments in subjects who have had mild traumatic brain injuries. Perturbations delivered while subjects were walking provided greater discriminability (average accuracy ≈ 0.90) than those delivered during standing (average accuracy ≈ 0.65) between mTBI subjects and healthy controls. Of the categories of features extracted to characterize balance, the lower limb accelerometry-based metrics proved to be most informative. Further, in response to perturbations, subjects with an mTBI utilized hip strategies more than ankle strategies to prevent loss of balance and also showed less variability in gait patterns. We have shown that sensorimotor conflicts illuminate otherwise-hidden balance impairments, which can be used to increase the sensitivity of current clinical procedures. This augmentation is vital in order to robustly detect the presence of balance impairments after mTBI and potentially define a phenotype of balance dysfunction that enhances risk of injury.