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Radar-optimized wind turbine siting

Author:
Published in:
IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, Vol. 13, No. 1, January 2022, pp. 403-13.

Summary

A method for analyzing wind turbine-radar interference is presented. A model is used to derive layouts for siting wind turbines that reduces their impact on radar systems, potentially allowing for increased wind turbine development near radar sites. By choosing a specific wind turbine grid stagger based on a wind farm's orientation relative to a radar site, the impacts on that radar can be minimized. The proposed changes to wind farm siting are relatively minor and do not have a significant effect on wind turbine density. With proper optimization of radar clutter mitigation, radar tracking performance above such wind farms can be significantly increased. Both present-day and potential future or upgraded radar systems are analyzed. The reduction in radar performance due to wind turbine clutter is approximately halved using this method. The developed method is robust with respect to controlled variations in wind turbine placement caused by potential obstructions.
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Summary

A method for analyzing wind turbine-radar interference is presented. A model is used to derive layouts for siting wind turbines that reduces their impact on radar systems, potentially allowing for increased wind turbine development near radar sites. By choosing a specific wind turbine grid stagger based on a wind farm's...

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Detecting pathogen exposure during the non-symptomatic incubation period using physiological data: proof of concept in non-human primates

Summary

Background and Objectives: Early warning of bacterial and viral infection, prior to the development of overt clinical symptoms, allows not only for improved patient care and outcomes but also enables faster implementation of public health measures (patient isolation and contact tracing). Our primary objectives in this effort are 3-fold. First, we seek to determine the upper limits of early warning detection through physiological measurements. Second, we investigate whether the detected physiological response is specific to the pathogen. Third, we explore the feasibility of extending early warning detection with wearable devices. Research Methods: For the first objective, we developed a supervised random forest algorithm to detect pathogen exposure in the asymptomatic period prior to overt symptoms (fever). We used high-resolution physiological telemetry data (aortic blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure, electrocardiograms, and core temperature) from non-human primate animal models exposed to two viral pathogens: Ebola and Marburg (N = 20). Second, to determine reusability across different pathogens, we evaluated our algorithm against three independent physiological datasets from non-human primate models (N = 13) exposed to three different pathogens: Lassa and Nipah viruses and Y. pestis. For the third objective, we evaluated performance degradation when the algorithm was restricted to features derived from electrocardiogram (ECG) waveforms to emulate data from a non-invasive wearable device. Results: First, our cross-validated random forest classifier provides a mean early warning of 51 ± 12 h, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.93 ± 0.01. Second, our algorithm achieved comparable performance when applied to datasets from different pathogen exposures – a mean early warning of 51 ± 14 h and AUC of 0.95 ± 0.01. Last, with a degraded feature set derived solely from ECG, we observed minimal degradation – a mean early warning of 46 ± 14 h and AUC of 0.91 ± 0.001. Conclusion: Under controlled experimental conditions, physiological measurements can provide over 2 days of early warning with high AUC. Deviations in physiological signals following exposure to a pathogen are due to the underlying host’s immunological response and are not specific to the pathogen. Pre-symptomatic detection is strong even when features are limited to ECG-derivatives, suggesting that this approach may translate to non-invasive wearable devices.
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Summary

Background and Objectives: Early warning of bacterial and viral infection, prior to the development of overt clinical symptoms, allows not only for improved patient care and outcomes but also enables faster implementation of public health measures (patient isolation and contact tracing). Our primary objectives in this effort are 3-fold. First...

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A neural network estimation of ankle torques from electromyography and accelerometry

Published in:
IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabilitation Eng., Vol. 29, 2021, pp. 1624-33.

Summary

Estimations of human joint torques can provide clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Predicting joint torques into the future can also be useful for anticipatory robot control design. In this work, we present a method of mapping joint torque estimates and sequences of torque predictions from motion capture and ground reaction forces to wearable sensor data using several modern types of neural networks. We use dense feedforward, convolutional, neural ordinary differential equation, and long short-term memory neural networks to learn the mapping for ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion torque during standing,walking, running, and sprinting, and consider both single-point torque estimation, as well as the prediction of a sequence of future torques. Our results show that long short-term memory neural networks, which consider incoming data sequentially, outperform dense feedforward, neural ordinary differential equation networks, and convolutional neural networks. Predictions of future ankle torques up to 0.4 s ahead also showed strong positive correlations with the actual torques. The proposed method relies on learning from a motion capture dataset, but once the model is built, the method uses wearable sensors that enable torque estimation without the motion capture data.
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Summary

Estimations of human joint torques can provide clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Predicting joint torques into the future can also be useful for anticipatory robot control design. In this work, we present a method of mapping joint torque...

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Development of a field artifical intelligence triage tool: Confidence in the prediction of shock, transfusion, and definitive surgical therapy in patients with truncal gunshot wounds

Summary

BACKGROUND: In-field triage tools for trauma patients are limited by availability of information, linear risk classification, and a lack of confidence reporting. We therefore set out to develop and test a machine learning algorithm that can overcome these limitations by accurately and confidently making predictions to support in-field triage in the first hours after traumatic injury. METHODS: Using an American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program-derived database of truncal and junctional gunshot wound (GSW) patients (aged 1~0 years), we trained an information-aware Dirichlet deep neural network (field artificial intelligence triage). Using supervised training, field artificial intelligence triage was trained to predict shock and the need for major hemorrhage control procedures or early massive transfusion (MT) using GSW anatomical locations, vital signs, and patient information available in the field. In parallel, a confidence model was developed to predict the true-dass probability ( scale of 0-1 ), indicating the likelihood that the prediction made was correct, based on the values and interconnectivity of input variables.
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Summary

BACKGROUND: In-field triage tools for trauma patients are limited by availability of information, linear risk classification, and a lack of confidence reporting. We therefore set out to develop and test a machine learning algorithm that can overcome these limitations by accurately and confidently making predictions to support in-field triage in...

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Geographic source estimation using airborne plant environmental DNA in dust

Summary

Information obtained from the analysis of dust, particularly biological particles such as pollen, plant parts, and fungal spores, has great utility in forensic geolocation. As an alternative to manual microscopic analysis, we developed a pipeline that utilizes the environmental DNA (eDNA) from plants in dust samples to estimate previous sample location(s). The species of plant-derived eDNA within dust samples were identified using metabarcoding and their geographic distributions were then derived from occurrence records in the USGS Biodiversity in Service of Our Nation (BISON) database. The distributions for all plant species identified in a sample were used to generate a probabilistic estimate of the sample source. With settled dust collected at four U.S. sites over a 15-month period, we demonstrated positive regional geolocation (within 600 km2 of the collection point) with 47.6% (20 of 42) of the samples analyzed. Attribution accuracy and resolution was dependent on the number of plant species identified in a dust sample, which was greatly affected by the season of collection. In dust samples that yielded a minimum of 20 identified plant species, positive regional attribution improved to 66.7% (16 of 24 samples). Using dust samples collected from 31 different U.S. sites, trace plant eDNA provided relevant regional attribution information on provenance in 32.2%. This demonstrated that analysis of plant eDNA in dust can provide an accurate estimate regional provenance within the U.S., and relevant forensic information, for a substantial fraction of samples analyzed.
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Summary

Information obtained from the analysis of dust, particularly biological particles such as pollen, plant parts, and fungal spores, has great utility in forensic geolocation. As an alternative to manual microscopic analysis, we developed a pipeline that utilizes the environmental DNA (eDNA) from plants in dust samples to estimate previous sample...

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Health-informed policy gradients for multi-agent reinforcement learning

Summary

This paper proposes a definition of system health in the context of multiple agents optimizing a joint reward function. We use this definition as a credit assignment term in a policy gradient algorithm to distinguish the contributions of individual agents to the global reward. The health-informed credit assignment is then extended to a multi-agent variant of the proximal policy optimization algorithm and demonstrated on simple particle environments that have elements of system health, risk-taking, semi-expendable agents, and partial observability. We show significant improvement in learning performance compared to policy gradient methods that do not perform multi-agent credit assignment.
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Summary

This paper proposes a definition of system health in the context of multiple agents optimizing a joint reward function. We use this definition as a credit assignment term in a policy gradient algorithm to distinguish the contributions of individual agents to the global reward. The health-informed credit assignment is then...

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Multimodal representation learning via maximization of local mutual information [e-print]

Published in:
Intl. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI, 27 September-1 October 2021.

Summary

We propose and demonstrate a representation learning approach by maximizing the mutual information between local features of images and text. The goal of this approach is to learn useful image representations by taking advantage of the rich information contained in the free text that describes the findings in the image. Our method learns image and text encoders by encouraging the resulting representations to exhibit high local mutual information. We make use of recent advances in mutual information estimation with neural network discriminators. We argue that, typically, the sum of local mutual information is a lower bound on the global mutual information. Our experimental results in the downstream image classification tasks demonstrate the advantages of using local features for image-text representation learning.
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Summary

We propose and demonstrate a representation learning approach by maximizing the mutual information between local features of images and text. The goal of this approach is to learn useful image representations by taking advantage of the rich information contained in the free text that describes the findings in the image...

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Learning emergent discrete message communication for cooperative reinforcement learning

Published in:
37th Conf. on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, UAI 2021, early access, 26-30 July 2021.

Summary

Communication is a important factor that enables agents work cooperatively in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL). Most previous work uses continuous message communication whose high representational capacity comes at the expense of interpretability. Allowing agents to learn their own discrete message communication protocol emerged from a variety of domains can increase the interpretability for human designers and other agents. This paper proposes a method to generate discrete messages analogous to human languages, and achieve communication by a broadcast-and-listen mechanism based on self-attention. We show that discrete message communication has performance comparable to continuous message communication but with much a much smaller vocabulary size. Furthermore, we propose an approach that allows humans to interactively send discrete messages to agents.
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Summary

Communication is a important factor that enables agents work cooperatively in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL). Most previous work uses continuous message communication whose high representational capacity comes at the expense of interpretability. Allowing agents to learn their own discrete message communication protocol emerged from a variety of domains can increase...

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Beyond expertise and roles: a framework to characterize the stakeholders of interpretable machine learning and their needs

Published in:
Proc. Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 8-13 May 2021, article no. 74.

Summary

To ensure accountability and mitigate harm, it is critical that diverse stakeholders can interrogate black-box automated systems and find information that is understandable, relevant, and useful to them. In this paper, we eschew prior expertise- and role-based categorizations of interpretability stakeholders in favor of a more granular framework that decouples stakeholders' knowledge from their interpretability needs. We characterize stakeholders by their formal, instrumental, and personal knowledge and how it manifests in the contexts of machine learning, the data domain, and the general milieu. We additionally distill a hierarchical typology of stakeholder needs that distinguishes higher-level domain goals from lower-level interpretability tasks. In assessing the descriptive, evaluative, and generative powers of our framework, we find our more nuanced treatment of stakeholders reveals gaps and opportunities in the interpretability literature, adds precision to the design and comparison of user studies, and facilitates a more reflexive approach to conducting this research.
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Summary

To ensure accountability and mitigate harm, it is critical that diverse stakeholders can interrogate black-box automated systems and find information that is understandable, relevant, and useful to them. In this paper, we eschew prior expertise- and role-based categorizations of interpretability stakeholders in favor of a more granular framework that decouples...

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Ultrasound diagnosis of COVID-19: robustness and explainability

Published in:
arXiv:2012.01145v1 [eess.IV]

Summary

Diagnosis of COVID-19 at point of care is vital to the containment of the global pandemic. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) provides rapid imagery of lungs to detect COVID-19 in patients in a repeatable and cost effective way. Previous work has used public datasets of POCUS videos to train an AI model for diagnosis that obtains high sensitivity. Due to the high stakes application we propose the use of robust and explainable techniques. We demonstrate experimentally that robust models have more stable predictions and offer improved interpretability. A framework of contrastive explanations based on adversarial perturbations is used to explain model predictions that aligns with human visual perception.
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Summary

Diagnosis of COVID-19 at point of care is vital to the containment of the global pandemic. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) provides rapid imagery of lungs to detect COVID-19 in patients in a repeatable and cost effective way. Previous work has used public datasets of POCUS videos to train an...

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