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Kawasaki disease, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: antibody-induced mast cell activation hypothesis

Published in:
J Pediatrics & Pediatr Med. 2020; 4(2): 1-7

Summary

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is appearing in infants, children, and young adults in association with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infections of SARS-CoV-2. Kawasaki Disease (KD) is one of the most common vasculitides of childhood. KD presents with similar symptoms to MIS-C especially in severe forms such as Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome (KDSS). The observed symptoms for MIS-C and KD are consistent with Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS) characterized by inflammatory molecules released from activated mast cells. Based on the associations of KD with multiple viral and bacterial pathogens, we put forward the hypothesis that KD and MIS-C result from antibody activation of mast cells by Fc receptor-bound pathogen antibodies causing a hyperinflammatory response upon second pathogen exposure. Within this hypothesis, MIS-C may be atypical KD or a KD-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. We extend the mast cell hypothesis that increased histamine levels are inducing contraction of effector cells with impeded blood flow through cardiac capillaries. In some patients, pressure from impeded blood flow, within cardiac capillaries, may result in increased coronary artery blood pressure leading to aneurysms, a well-known complication in KD.
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Summary

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is appearing in infants, children, and young adults in association with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infections of SARS-CoV-2. Kawasaki Disease (KD) is one of the most common vasculitides of childhood. KD presents with similar symptoms to MIS-C especially in severe forms such as Kawasaki...

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Medical countermeasures analysis of 2019-nCoV and vaccine risks for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)

Published in:
https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202003.0138/v1

Summary

Background: In 80% of patients, COVID-19 presents as mild disease. 20% of cases develop severe (13%) or critical (6%) illness. More severe forms of COVID-19 present as clinical severe acute respiratory syndrome, but include a T-predominant lymphopenia, high circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs, and immune dysregulation including immunosuppression. Methods: All major SARS-CoV-2 proteins were characterized using an amino acid residue variation analysis method. Results predict that most SARS-CoV-2 proteins are evolutionary constrained, with the exception of the spike (S) protein extended outer surface. Results were interpreted based on known SARS-like coronavirus virology and pathophysiology, with a focus on medical countermeasure development implications. Findings: Non-neutralizing antibodies to variable S domains may enable an alternative infection pathway via Fc receptor-mediated uptake. This may be a gating event for the immune response dysregulation observed in more severe COVID-19 disease. Prior studies involving vaccine candidates for FCoV SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) demonstrate vaccination-induced antibody-dependent enhancement of disease (ADE), including infection of phagocytic antigen presenting cells (APC). T effector cells are believed to play an important role in controlling coronavirus infection; pan-T depletion is present in severe COVID-19 disease and may be accelerated by APC infection. Sequence and structural conservation of S motifs suggests that SARS and MERS vaccine ADE risks may foreshadow SARS-CoV-2 S-based vaccine risks. Autophagy inhibitors may reduce APC infection and T-cell depletion. Amino acid residue variation analysis identifies multiple constrained domains suitable as T cell vaccine targets. Evolutionary constraints on proven antiviral drug targets present in SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 may reduce risk of developing antiviral drug escape mutants. Interpretation: Safety testing of COVID-19 S protein-based B cell vaccines in animal models is strongly encouraged prior to clinical trials to reduce risk of ADE upon virus exposure.
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Summary

Background: In 80% of patients, COVID-19 presents as mild disease. 20% of cases develop severe (13%) or critical (6%) illness. More severe forms of COVID-19 present as clinical severe acute respiratory syndrome, but include a T-predominant lymphopenia, high circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages...

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