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AI-enabled, ultrasound-guided handheld robotic device for femoral vascular access

Summary

Hemorrhage is a leading cause of trauma death, particularly in prehospital environments when evacuation is delayed. Obtaining central vascular access to a deep artery or vein is important for administration of emergency drugs and analgesics, and rapid replacement of blood volume, as well as invasive sensing and emerging life-saving interventions. However, central access is normally performed by highly experienced critical care physicians in a hospital setting. We developed a handheld AI-enabled interventional device, AI-GUIDE (Artificial Intelligence Guided Ultrasound Interventional Device), capable of directing users with no ultrasound or interventional expertise to catheterize a deep blood vessel, with an initial focus on the femoral vein. AI-GUIDE integrates with widely available commercial portable ultrasound systems and guides a user in ultrasound probe localization, venous puncture-point localization, and needle insertion. The system performs vascular puncture robotically and incorporates a preloaded guidewire to facilitate the Seldinger technique of catheter insertion. Results from tissue-mimicking phantom and porcine studies under normotensive and hypotensive conditions provide evidence of the technique's robustness, with key performance metrics in a live porcine model including: a mean time to acquire femoral vein insertion point of 53 plus or minus 36 s (5 users with varying experience, in 20 trials), a total time to insert catheter of 80 plus or minus 30 s (1 user, in 6 trials), and a mean number of 1.1 (normotensive, 39 trials) and 1.3 (hypotensive, 55 trials) needle insertion attempts (1 user). These performance metrics in a porcine model are consistent with those for experienced medical providers performing central vascular access on humans in a hospital.
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Summary

Hemorrhage is a leading cause of trauma death, particularly in prehospital environments when evacuation is delayed. Obtaining central vascular access to a deep artery or vein is important for administration of emergency drugs and analgesics, and rapid replacement of blood volume, as well as invasive sensing and emerging life-saving interventions...

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Detecting Parkinson's disease from wrist-worn accelerometry in the U.K. Biobank

Published in:
Sensors, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2021, Art. No. 2047.

Summary

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic movement disorder that produces a variety of characteristic movement abnormalities. The ubiquity of wrist-worn accelerometry suggests a possible sensor modality for early detection of PD symptoms and subsequent tracking of PD symptom severity. As an initial proof of concept for this technological approach, we analyzed the U.K. Biobank data set, consisting of one week of wrist-worn accelerometry from a population with a PD primary diagnosis and an age-matched healthy control population. Measures of movement dispersion were extracted from automatically segmented gait data, and measures of movement dimensionality were extracted from automatically segmented low-movement data. Using machine learning classifiers applied to one week of data, PD was detected with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.69 on gait data, AUC = 0.84 on low-movement data, and AUC = 0.85 on a fusion of both activities. It was also found that classification accuracy steadily improved across the one-week data collection, suggesting that higher accuracy could be achievable from a longer data collection. These results suggest the viability of using a low-cost and easy-to-use activity sensor for detecting movement abnormalities due to PD and motivate further research on early PD detection and tracking of PD symptom severity.
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Summary

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic movement disorder that produces a variety of characteristic movement abnormalities. The ubiquity of wrist-worn accelerometry suggests a possible sensor modality for early detection of PD symptoms and subsequent tracking of PD symptom severity. As an initial proof of concept for this technological approach, we...

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Ultrasound and artificial intelligence

Published in:
Chapter 8 in Machine Learning in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2020, pp. 177-210.

Summary

Compared to other major medical imaging modalities such as X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasound (US) has unique attributes that make it the preferred modality for many clinical applications. In particular, US is nonionizing, portable, and provides real-time imaging, with adequate spatial and depth resolution to visualize tissue dynamics. The ability to measure Doppler information is also important, particularly for measuring blood flows. The small size of US transducers is a key attribute for intravascular applications. In addition, accessibility has been increased with the use of portable US, which continues to move toward a smaller footprint and lower cost. Nowadays, some US probes can even be directly connected to a phone or tablet. On the other hand, US also has unique challenges, particularly in that image quality is highly dependent on the operator’s skill in acquiring images based on the proper position, orientation, and probe pressure. Additional challenges that further require operator skill include the presence of noise, artifacts, limited field of view, difficulty in imaging structures behind bone and air, and device variability across manufacturers. Sonographers become highly proficient through extensive training and long experience, but high intra- and interobserver variability remains. This skill dependence has limited the wider use of US by healthcare providers who are not US imaging specialists. Recent advances in machine learning (ML) have been increasingly applied to medical US (Brattain, Telfer, Dhyani, Grajo, & Samir, 2018), with a goal of reducing intra- and interobserver variability as well as interpretation time. As progress toward these goals is made, US use by nonspecialists is expected to proliferate, including nurses at the bedside or medics in the field. The acceleration in ML applications for medical US can be seen from the increasing number of publications (Fig. 8.1) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals (Table 8.1) in the past few years. Fig. 8.1 shows that cardiovascular applications (spanning the heart, brain and vessels) have received the most attention, compared to other organs. Table 8.1 shows that pace of US FDA-cleared artificial intelligence (AI) products that combine AI and ultrasound is accelerating. Of note, many of the products have been approved over the last couple of years. Companies such as Butterfly Network (Guilford, CT) have also demonstrated AI-driven applications for portable ultrasound and more FDA clearances are expected to be published. The goals of this chapter are to highlight the recent progress, as well as the current challenges and future opportunities. Specifically, this chapter addresses topics such as the following: (1) what is the current state of machine learning for medical US application, both in research and commercially; (2) what applications are receiving the most attention and have performance improvements been quantified; (3) how do ML solutions fit in an overall workflow; and (4) what open-source datasets are available for the broader community to contribute to progress in this field. The focus is on cardiovascular applications (Section Cardiovascular/echocardiography), but common themes and differences for other applications for medical US are also summarized (Section Breast, liver, and thyroid ultrasound). A discussion is offered in Discussion and outlook section.
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Summary

Compared to other major medical imaging modalities such as X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasound (US) has unique attributes that make it the preferred modality for many clinical applications. In particular, US is nonionizing, portable, and provides real-time imaging, with adequate spatial and depth resolution to...

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Image processing pipeline for liver fibrosis classification using ultrasound shear wave elastography

Published in:
Ultrasound in Med. & Biol., Vol. 46, No. 10, October 2020, pp. 2667-2676.

Summary

The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method for classifying liver fibrosis stage >=F2 based on ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) and to assess the system's performance in comparison with a reference manual approach. The reference approach consists of manually selecting a region of interest from each of eight or more SWE images, computing the mean tissue stiffness within each of the regions of interest and computing a resulting stiffness value as the median of the means. The 527-subject database consisted of 5526 SWE images and pathologist-scored biopsies, with data collected from a single system at a single site. The automated method integrates three modules that assess SWE image quality, select a region of interest from each SWE measurement and perform machine learning-based, multi-image SWE classification for fibrosis stage >=F2. Several classification methods were developed and tested using fivefold cross-validation with training, validation and test sets partitioned by subject. Performance metrics were area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), specificity at 95% sensitivity and number of SWE images required. The final automated method yielded an AUROC of 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.94) versus 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.72) for the reference method, 71% specificity with 95% sensitivity versus 5% and four images per decision versus eight or more. In conclusion, the automated method reported in this study significantly improved the accuracy for >=F2 classification of SWE measurements as well as reduced the number of measurements needed, which has the potential to reduce clinical workflow.
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Summary

The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method for classifying liver fibrosis stage >=F2 based on ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) and to assess the system's performance in comparison with a reference manual approach. The reference approach consists of manually selecting a region of interest from each...

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Detecting intracranial hemorrhage with deep learning

Published in:
40th Int. Conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 17-21 July 2018.

Summary

Initial results are reported on automated detection of intracranial hemorrhage from CT, which would be valuable in a computer-aided diagnosis system to help the radiologist detect subtle hemorrhages. Previous work has taken a classic approach involving multiple steps of alignment, image processing, image corrections, handcrafted feature extraction, and classification. Our current work instead uses a deep convolutional neural network to simultaneously learn features and classification, eliminating the multiple hand-tuned steps. Performance is improved by computing the mean output for rotations of the input image. Postprocessing is additionally applied to the CNN output to significantly improve specificity. The database consists of 134 CT cases (4,300 images), divided into 60, 5, and 69 cases for training, validation, and test. Each case typically includes multiple hemorrhages. Performance on the test set was 81% sensitivity per lesion (34/42 lesions) and 98% specificity per case (45/46 cases). The sensitivity is comparable to previous results (on different datasets), but with a significantly higher specificity. In addition, insights are shared to improve performance as the database is expanded.
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Summary

Initial results are reported on automated detection of intracranial hemorrhage from CT, which would be valuable in a computer-aided diagnosis system to help the radiologist detect subtle hemorrhages. Previous work has taken a classic approach involving multiple steps of alignment, image processing, image corrections, handcrafted feature extraction, and classification. Our...

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Machine learning for medical ultrasound: status, methods, and future opportunities

Published in:
Abdom. Radiol., 2018, doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1517-0.

Summary

Ultrasound (US) imaging is the most commonly performed cross-sectional diagnostic imaging modality in the practice of medicine. It is low-cost, non-ionizing, portable, and capable of real-time image acquisition and display. US is a rapidly evolving technology with significant challenges and opportunities. Challenges include high inter- and intra-operator variability and limited image quality control. Tremendous opportunities have arisen in the last decade as a result of exponential growth in available computational power coupled with progressive miniaturization of US devices. As US devices become smaller, enhanced computational capability can contribute significantly to decreasing variability through advanced image processing. In this paper, we review leading machine learning (ML) approaches and research directions in US, with an emphasis on recent ML advances. We also present our outlook on future opportunities for ML techniques to further improve clinical workflow and US-based disease diagnosis and characterization.
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Summary

Ultrasound (US) imaging is the most commonly performed cross-sectional diagnostic imaging modality in the practice of medicine. It is low-cost, non-ionizing, portable, and capable of real-time image acquisition and display. US is a rapidly evolving technology with significant challenges and opportunities. Challenges include high inter- and intra-operator variability and limited...

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Building low-power trustworthy systems: cyber-security considerations for real-time physiological status monitoring

Summary

Real-time monitoring of physiological data can reduce the likelihood of injury in noncombat military personnel and first-responders. MIT Lincoln Laboratory is developing a tactical Real-Time Physiological Status Monitoring (RT-PSM) system architecture and reference implementation named OBAN (Open Body Area Network), the purpose of which is to provide an open, government-owned framework for integrating multiple wearable sensors and applications. The OBAN implementation accepts data from various sensors enabling calculation of physiological strain information which may be used by squad leaders or medics to assess the team's health and enhance safety and effectiveness of mission execution. Security in terms of measurement integrity, confidentiality, and authenticity is an area of interest because OBAN system components exchange sensitive data in contested environments. In this paper, we analyze potential cyber-security threats and their associated risks to a generalized version of the OBAN architecture and identify directions for future research. The threat analysis is intended to inform the development of secure RT-PSM architectures and implementations.
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Summary

Real-time monitoring of physiological data can reduce the likelihood of injury in noncombat military personnel and first-responders. MIT Lincoln Laboratory is developing a tactical Real-Time Physiological Status Monitoring (RT-PSM) system architecture and reference implementation named OBAN (Open Body Area Network), the purpose of which is to provide an open, government-owned...

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