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A Framework for Evaluating Electric Power Grid Improvements in Puerto Rico(2.58 MB)

Summary

This report is motivated by the recognition that serving highly distributed electric power load in Puerto Rico during extreme events requires innovative methods. To do this, we must determine the type and locations of the most critical equipment, innovative methods, and software for operating the electrical system most effectively. It is well recognized that the existing system needs to be both hardened and further enhanced by deploying Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), solar photovoltaics (PV) in particular, and local reconfigurable microgrids to manage these newly deployed DERs. While deployment of microgrids and DERs has been advocated by many, there is little fundamental understanding how to operate Puerto Rico’s electrical system in a way that effectively uses DERs during both normal operations and grid failures. Utility companies’ traditional reliability requirements and operational risk management practices rely on excessive amounts of centralized reserve generation to anticipate failures, which increases the cost of normal operations and nullifies the potential of DERs to meet loads during grid failures. At present, no electric power utility has a ready-to-use framework that overcomes these limitations. This report seeks to fill this void.
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Summary

This report is motivated by the recognition that serving highly distributed electric power load in Puerto Rico during extreme events requires innovative methods. To do this, we must determine the type and locations of the most critical equipment, innovative methods, and software for operating the electrical system most effectively. It...

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A framework for evaluating electric power grid improvements in Puerto Rico

Summary

This report is motivated by the recognition that serving highly distributed electric power load in Puerto Rico during extreme events requires innovative methods. To do this, we must determine the type and locations of the most critical equipment, innovative methods, and software for operating the electrical system most effectively. It is well recognized that the existing system needs to be both hardened and further enhanced by deploying Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), solar photovoltaics (PV) in particular, and local reconfigurable microgrids to manage these newly deployed DERs. While deployment of microgrids and DERs has been advocated by many, there is little fundamental understanding how to operate Puerto Rico's electrical system in a way that effectively uses DERs during both normal operations and grid failures. Utility companies' traditional reliability requirements and operational risk management practices rely on excessive amounts of centralized reserve generation to anticipate failures, which increases the cost of normal operations and nullifies the potential of DERs to meet loads during grid failures. At present, no electric power utility has a ready-to-use framework that overcomes these limitations. This report seeks to fill this void.
READ LESS

Summary

This report is motivated by the recognition that serving highly distributed electric power load in Puerto Rico during extreme events requires innovative methods. To do this, we must determine the type and locations of the most critical equipment, innovative methods, and software for operating the electrical system most effectively. It...

READ MORE

Lessons learned from hardware-in-the-loop testing of microgrid control systems

Published in:
CIGRE 2017 Grid of the Future Symp., 22-25 Oct. 2017.

Summary

A key ingredient for the successful completion of any complex microgrid project is real-time controller hardware-in-the-loop (C-HIL) testing. C-HIL testing allows engineers to test the system and its controls before it is deployed in the field. C-HIL testing also allows for the simulation of test scenarios that are too risky or even impossible to test in the field. The results of C-HIL testing provide the necessary proof of concept and insight into any microgrid system limitations. This type of testing can also be used to create awareness among potential microgrid customers. This paper describes the modeling benefits, challenges, and lessons learned associated with C-HIL testing. The microgrid system used in this study has a 3 MW battery, 5 MW photovoltaic (PV) array, 4 MW diesel generator set (genset), and 3.5 MW combined heat and power generation system (CHP).
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Summary

A key ingredient for the successful completion of any complex microgrid project is real-time controller hardware-in-the-loop (C-HIL) testing. C-HIL testing allows engineers to test the system and its controls before it is deployed in the field. C-HIL testing also allows for the simulation of test scenarios that are too risky...

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Boston community energy study - zonal analysis for urban microgrids

Published in:
MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report TR-1201

Summary

Superstorm Sandy illustrated the economic and human impact that severe weather can have on urban areas such as New York City. While flooding and wind damaged or destroyed some of the energy infrastructure, all installed microgrids in the New York City region remained operational during Sandy, including those at Princeton University, Goldman Sachs, New York University, and Co-op City. The resilience provided by these microgrids sparked renewed interest in pursuing more microgrid deployments as means to increase resiliency throughout the nation and in the face of many potential threats including severe weather events, and potentially terrorism. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been engaged with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the City of Boston in this Community Energy Study to explore the potential for microgrid deployment within Boston's thriving neighborhoods. Using hourly simulated building energy data for every building in Boston, provided by the Sustainable Design Lab on MIT campus, MIT Lincoln Laboratory was able to develop an approach that can identify zones within the city where microgrids could be implemented with a high return on investment in terms of resiliency, offering both cost savings and social benefit in the face of grid outages. An important part of this approach leverages a microgrid optimization tool developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with whom the MIT Lincoln Laboratory is now collaborating on microgrid modeling work. Using the microgrid optimization tool, along with building energy use data, forty-two community microgrids were identified, including ten multiuser microgrids, ten energy justice microgrids, and twenty-two emergency microgrids.
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Summary

Superstorm Sandy illustrated the economic and human impact that severe weather can have on urban areas such as New York City. While flooding and wind damaged or destroyed some of the energy infrastructure, all installed microgrids in the New York City region remained operational during Sandy, including those at Princeton...

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Development of a real-time hardware-in-the-loop power systems simulation platform to evaluate commercial microgrid controllers

Summary

This report describes the development of a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) power system simulation platform to evaluate commercial microgrid controllers. The effort resulted in the successful demonstration of HIL simulation technology at a Technical Symposium organized by the Mass Clean Energy Center (CEC) for utility distribution system engineers, project developers, systems integrators, equipment vendors, academia, regulators, City of Boston officials, and Commonwealth officials. Actual microgrid controller hardware was integrated along with actual, commercial genset controller hardware in a particular microgrid configuration, which included dynamic loads, distributed energy resources (DERs), and conventional power sources. The end product provides the ability to quickly and cost-effectively assess the performance of different microgrid controllers as quantified by certain metrics, such as fuel consumption, power flow management precision at the point of common coupling, load-not-served (LNS) while islanded, peak-shaving kWh, and voltage stability. Additional applications include protection system testing and evaluation, distributed generation prime mover controller testing, integration and testing of distribution control systems, behavior testing and studies of DER controls, detailed power systems analysis, communications testing and integration, and implementation and evaluation of smart grid concepts. Microgrids and these additional applications promise to improve the reliability, resiliency, and efficiency of the nation's aging but critical power distribution systems. This achievement was a collaborative effort between MIT Lincoln Laboratory and industry microgrid controller manufacturers. This work was sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.
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Summary

This report describes the development of a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) power system simulation platform to evaluate commercial microgrid controllers. The effort resulted in the successful demonstration of HIL simulation technology at a Technical Symposium organized by the Mass Clean Energy Center (CEC) for utility distribution system engineers, project developers, systems...

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