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Exploring the impact of advanced front-end processing on NIST speaker recognition microphone tasks

Summary

The NIST speaker recognition evaluation (SRE) featured microphone data in the 2005-2010 evaluations. The preprocessing and use of this data has typically been performed with telephone bandwidth and quantization. Although this approach is viable, it ignores the richer properties of the microphone data-multiple channels, high-rate sampling, linear encoding, ambient noise properties, etc. In this paper, we explore alternate choices of preprocessing and examine their effects on speaker recognition performance. Specifically, we consider the effects of quantization, sampling rate, enhancement, and two-channel speech activity detection. Experiments on the NIST 2010 SRE interview microphone corpus demonstrate that performance can be dramatically improved with a different preprocessing chain.
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Summary

The NIST speaker recognition evaluation (SRE) featured microphone data in the 2005-2010 evaluations. The preprocessing and use of this data has typically been performed with telephone bandwidth and quantization. Although this approach is viable, it ignores the richer properties of the microphone data-multiple channels, high-rate sampling, linear encoding, ambient noise...

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Sinewave representations of nonmodality

Published in:
Proc. 2011 INTERSPEECH, 27-31 August 2011, pp. 69-72.

Summary

Regions of nonmodal phonation, exhibiting deviations from uniform glottal-pulse periods and amplitudes, occur often and convey information about speaker- and linguistic-dependent factors. Such waveforms pose challenges for speech modeling, analysis/synthesis, and processing. In this paper, we investigate the representation of nonmodal pulse trains as a sum of harmonically-related sinewaves with time-varying amplitudes, phases, and frequencies. We show that a sinewave representation of any impulsive signal is not unique and also the converse, i.e., frame-based measurements of the underlying sinewave representation can yield different impulse trains. Finally, we argue how this ambiguity may explain addition, deletion, and movement of pulses in sinewave synthesis and a specific illustrative example of time-scale modification of a nonmodal case of diplophonia.
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Summary

Regions of nonmodal phonation, exhibiting deviations from uniform glottal-pulse periods and amplitudes, occur often and convey information about speaker- and linguistic-dependent factors. Such waveforms pose challenges for speech modeling, analysis/synthesis, and processing. In this paper, we investigate the representation of nonmodal pulse trains as a sum of harmonically-related sinewaves with...

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USSS-MITLL 2010 human assisted speaker recognition

Summary

The United States Secret Service (USSS) teamed with MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) in the US National Institute of Standards and Technology's 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation of Human Assisted Speaker Recognition (HASR). We describe our qualitative and automatic speaker comparison processes and our fusion of these processes, which are adapted from USSS casework. The USSS-MIT/LL 2010 HASR results are presented. We also present post-evaluation results. The results are encouraging within the resolving power of the evaluation, which was limited to enable reasonable levels of human effort. Future ideas and efforts are discussed, including new features and capitalizing on naive listeners.
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Summary

The United States Secret Service (USSS) teamed with MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) in the US National Institute of Standards and Technology's 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation of Human Assisted Speaker Recognition (HASR). We describe our qualitative and automatic speaker comparison processes and our fusion of these processes, which are adapted from...

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Sinewave parameter estimation using the fast Fan-Chirp Transform

Published in:
Proc. IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, WASPAA, 18-21 October 2009, pp. 349-352.

Summary

Sinewave analysis/synthesis has long been an important tool for audio analysis, modification and synthesis [1]. The recently introduced Fan-Chirp Transform (FChT) [2,3] has been shown to improve the fidelity of sinewave parameter estimates for a harmonic audio signal with rapid frequency modulation [4]. A fast version of the FChT [3] reduces computation but this algorithm presents two factors that affect sinewave parameter estimation. The phase of the fast FChT does not match the phase of the original continuous-time transform and this interferes with the estimation of sinewave phases. Also, the fast FChT requires an interpolation of the input signal and the choice of interpolator affects the speed of the transform and accuracy of the estimated sinewave parameters. In this paper we demonstrate how to modify the phase of the fast FChT such that it can be used to estimate sinewave phases, and we explore the use of various interpolators demonstrating the tradeoff between transform speed and sinewave parameter accuracy.
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Summary

Sinewave analysis/synthesis has long been an important tool for audio analysis, modification and synthesis [1]. The recently introduced Fan-Chirp Transform (FChT) [2,3] has been shown to improve the fidelity of sinewave parameter estimates for a harmonic audio signal with rapid frequency modulation [4]. A fast version of the FChT [3]...

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Adaptive short-time analysis-synthesis for speech enhancement

Published in:
2008 IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP, 31 March - 4 April 2008.

Summary

In this paper we propose a multiresolution short-time analysis method for speech enhancement. It is well known that fixed resolution methods such as the traditional short-time Fourier transform do not generally match the time-frequency structure of the signal being analyzed resulting in poor estimates of the speech and noise spectra required for enhancement. This can lead to the reduction of quality in the enhanced signal through the introduction of artifacts such as musical noise. To counter these limitations, we propose an adaptive short-time analysis-synthesis scheme for speech enhancement in which the adaptation is based on a measure of local time-frequency concentration. Synthesis is made possible through a modified overlap-add procedure. Empirical results using voiced speech indicate a clear improvement over a fixed time-frequency resolution enhancement scheme both in terms of mean-square error and as indicated by informal listening tests.
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Summary

In this paper we propose a multiresolution short-time analysis method for speech enhancement. It is well known that fixed resolution methods such as the traditional short-time Fourier transform do not generally match the time-frequency structure of the signal being analyzed resulting in poor estimates of the speech and noise spectra...

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Sinewave analysis/synthesis based on the fan-chirp transform

Published in:
Proc. IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, WASPA, 21-24 October 2007, pp. 247-250.

Summary

There have been numerous recent strides at making sinewave analysis consistent with time-varying sinewave models. This is particularly important in high-frequency speech regions where harmonic frequency modulation (FM) can be significant. One notable approach is through the Fan Chirp transform that provides a set of FM-sinewave basis functions consistent with harmonic FM. In this paper, we develop a complete sinewave analysis/synthesis system using the Fan Chirp transform. With this system we are able to obtain more accurate sinewave frequencies and phases, thus creating more accurate frequency tracks, in contrast to a system derived from the short-time Fourier transform, particularly for high-frequency regions of large-bandwidth analysis. With synthesis, we show an improvement in segmental signal-to-noise ratio with respect to waveform matching with the largest gains during rapid pitch dynamics.
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Summary

There have been numerous recent strides at making sinewave analysis consistent with time-varying sinewave models. This is particularly important in high-frequency speech regions where harmonic frequency modulation (FM) can be significant. One notable approach is through the Fan Chirp transform that provides a set of FM-sinewave basis functions consistent with...

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An evaluation of audio-visual person recognition on the XM2VTS corpus using the Lausanne protocols

Published in:
Proc. 32nd IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP, April 2007, pp. IV-237 - 240.

Summary

A multimodal person recognition architecture has been developed for the purpose of improving overall recognition performance and for addressing channel-specific performance shortfalls. This multimodal architecture includes the fusion of a face recognition system with the MIT/LLGMM/UBM speaker recognition architecture. This architecture exploits the complementary and redundant nature of the face and speech modalities. The resulting multimodal architecture has been evaluated on theXM2VTS corpus using the Lausanne open set verification protocols, and demonstrates excellent recognition performance. The multimodal architecture also exhibits strong recognition performance gains over the performance of the individual modalities.
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Summary

A multimodal person recognition architecture has been developed for the purpose of improving overall recognition performance and for addressing channel-specific performance shortfalls. This multimodal architecture includes the fusion of a face recognition system with the MIT/LLGMM/UBM speaker recognition architecture. This architecture exploits the complementary and redundant nature of the face...

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Robust speaker recognition with cross-channel data: MIT-LL results on the 2006 NIST SRE auxiliary microphone task

Published in:
Proc. 32nd IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP, April 2007, pp. IV-49 - IV-52.

Summary

One particularly difficult challenge for cross-channel speaker verification is the auxiliary microphone task introduced in the 2005 and 2006 NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluations, where training uses telephone speech and verification uses speech from multiple auxiliary microphones. This paper presents two approaches to compensate for the effects of auxiliary microphones on the speech signal. The first compensation method mitigates session effects through Latent Factor Analysis (LFA) and Nuisance Attribute Projection (NAP). The second approach operates directly on the recorded signal with noise reduction techniques. Results are presented that show a reduction in the performance gap between telephone and auxiliary microphone data.
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Summary

One particularly difficult challenge for cross-channel speaker verification is the auxiliary microphone task introduced in the 2005 and 2006 NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluations, where training uses telephone speech and verification uses speech from multiple auxiliary microphones. This paper presents two approaches to compensate for the effects of auxiliary microphones on...

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Beyond cepstra: exploiting high-level information in speaker recognition

Summary

Traditionally speaker recognition techniques have focused on using short-term, low-level acoustic information such as cepstra features extracted over 20-30 ms windows of speech. But speech is a complex behavior conveying more information about the speaker than merely the sounds that are characteristic of his vocal apparatus. This higher-level information includes speaker-specific prosodics, pronunciations, word usage and conversational style. In this paper, we review some of the techniques to extract and apply these sources of high-level information with results from the NIST 2003 Extended Data Task.
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Summary

Traditionally speaker recognition techniques have focused on using short-term, low-level acoustic information such as cepstra features extracted over 20-30 ms windows of speech. But speech is a complex behavior conveying more information about the speaker than merely the sounds that are characteristic of his vocal apparatus. This higher-level information includes...

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Fusing high- and low-level features for speaker recognition

Summary

The area of automatic speaker recognition has been dominated by systems using only short-term, low-level acoustic information, such as cepstral features. While these systems have produced low error rates, they ignore higher levels of information beyond low-level acoustics that convey speaker information. Recently published works have demonstrated that such high-level information can be used successfully in automatic speaker recognition systems by improving accuracy and potentially increasing robustness. Wide ranging high-level-feature-based approaches using pronunciation models, prosodic dynamics, pitch gestures, phone streams, and conversational interactions were explored and developed under the SuperSID project at the 2002 JHU CLSP Summer Workshop (WS2002): http://www.clsp.jhu.edu/ws2002/groups/supersid/. In this paper, we show how these novel features and classifiers provide complementary information and can be fused together to drive down the equal error rate on the 2001 NIST Extended Data Task to 0.2%-a 71% relative reduction in error over the previous state of the art.
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Summary

The area of automatic speaker recognition has been dominated by systems using only short-term, low-level acoustic information, such as cepstral features. While these systems have produced low error rates, they ignore higher levels of information beyond low-level acoustics that convey speaker information. Recently published works have demonstrated that such high-level...

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