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Slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) devices and photonic integrated circuits (PICs)

Summary

We review recent advances in the development of slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) devices, progress toward a flexible photonic integration platform containing both conventional high-confinement and SCOW ultra-low confinement devices, and applications of this technology.
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Summary

We review recent advances in the development of slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) devices, progress toward a flexible photonic integration platform containing both conventional high-confinement and SCOW ultra-low confinement devices, and applications of this technology.

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High-power, low-noise 1.5-um slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) emitters: physics, devices, and applications

Summary

We review the development of a new class of high-power, edge-emitting, semiconductor optical gain medium based on the slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) concept. We restrict the scope to InP-based devices incorporating either InGaAsP or InGaAlAs quantum-well active regions and operating in the 1.5-μm-wavelength region. Key properties of the SCOW gain medium include large transverse optical mode dimensions (>;5 × 5 μm), ultralow optical confinement factor (Γ ~ 0.25-1%), and small internal loss coefficient (α i ~ 0.5 cm-1). These properties have enabled the realization of 1) packaged Watt-class semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) having low-noise figure (4-5 dB), 2) monolithic passively mode-locked lasers generating 0.25-W average output power, 3) external-cavity fiber-ring actively mode-locked lasers exhibiting residual timing jitter of
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Summary

We review the development of a new class of high-power, edge-emitting, semiconductor optical gain medium based on the slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) concept. We restrict the scope to InP-based devices incorporating either InGaAsP or InGaAlAs quantum-well active regions and operating in the 1.5-μm-wavelength region. Key properties of the SCOW gain...

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Uni-traveling-carrier variable confinement waveguide photodiodes

Summary

Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes (PDs) with a variable optical confinement mode size transformer are demonstrated. The optical mode is large at the input for minimal front-end saturation and the mode transforms as the light propagates so that the absorption profile is optimized for both high-power and high-speed performance. Two differently designed PDs are presented. PD A demonstrates a 3-dB bandwidth of 12.6 GHz, and saturation currents of 40 mA at 1 GHz and 34 mA at 10 GHz. PD B demonstrates a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.5 GHz, a saturation current greater than 100 mA at 1 GHz, a peak RF output power of + 19 dBm, and a third-order output intercept point of 29.1 dBm at a photocurrent of 60 mA.
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Summary

Uni-traveling-carrier waveguide photodiodes (PDs) with a variable optical confinement mode size transformer are demonstrated. The optical mode is large at the input for minimal front-end saturation and the mode transforms as the light propagates so that the absorption profile is optimized for both high-power and high-speed performance. Two differently designed...

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Uniformity study of wafer-scale InP-to-silicon hybrid integration

Published in:
Appl. Phys. A, Mat. Sci. & Process., Vol. 103, No. 1, April 2011, pp. 213-218.

Summary

In this paper we study the uniformity of up to 150 mm in diameter wafer-scale III-V epitaxial transfer to the Si-on-insulator substrate through the O2 plasma-enhanced low-temperature (300°C) direct wafer bonding. Void-free bonding is demonstrated by the scanning acoustic microscopy with sub-um resolution. The photoluminescence (PL) map shows less than 1 nm change in average peak wavelength, and even improved peak intensity (4% better) and full width at half maximum (41% better) after 150 mm in diameter epitaxial transfer. Small and uniformly distributed residual strain in all sizes of bonding, which is measured by high-resolution X-ray diffraction Omega- 2Theta mapping, and employment of a two-period InP-InGaAsP superlattice at the bonding interface contributes to the improvement of PL response. Preservation of multiple quantum-well integrity is also verified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
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Summary

In this paper we study the uniformity of up to 150 mm in diameter wafer-scale III-V epitaxial transfer to the Si-on-insulator substrate through the O2 plasma-enhanced low-temperature (300°C) direct wafer bonding. Void-free bonding is demonstrated by the scanning acoustic microscopy with sub-um resolution. The photoluminescence (PL) map shows less than...

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Microwave photonic applications of slab-coupled optical waveguide devices

Published in:
2010 23rd Annual Mtg. of the IEEE Photonics Society, 10 November 2010, pp. 479-480.
Topic:

Summary

The semiconductor slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) concept is a versatile device platform that has enabled new classes of high-power, low-noise single-frequency lasers, mode-locked lasers, optical amplifiers, and photodiodes for analog optical links and photonic analog-to-digital converters.
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Summary

The semiconductor slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) concept is a versatile device platform that has enabled new classes of high-power, low-noise single-frequency lasers, mode-locked lasers, optical amplifiers, and photodiodes for analog optical links and photonic analog-to-digital converters.

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High-quality 150 nm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits

Published in:
Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., Vol. 12, No. 4, January 2009, pp. H101-H104.

Summary

We demonstrate the transfer of the largest (150 mm in diameter) available InP-based epitaxial structure to the silicon-on-insulator substrate through a direct wafer-bonding process. Over 95% bonding yield and a void-free bonding interface was obtained. A multiple quantum-well diode laser structure is well-preserved after bonding, as indicated by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurement and photoluminescence (PL) map. A bowing of 64.12 um is measured, resulting in a low bonding-induced strain of 17 MPa. PL measurement shows a standard deviation of 1.09% across the entire bonded area with less than 1.1 nm wavelength shift from the as-grown wafer.
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Summary

We demonstrate the transfer of the largest (150 mm in diameter) available InP-based epitaxial structure to the silicon-on-insulator substrate through a direct wafer-bonding process. Over 95% bonding yield and a void-free bonding interface was obtained. A multiple quantum-well diode laser structure is well-preserved after bonding, as indicated by the high-resolution...

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Slab-coupled optical waveguide photodiode

Published in:
CLEO-QELS, 2008 Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf., 4-9 May 2008.
Topic:

Summary

We report the first high-current photodiode based on the slab-coupled optical waveguide concept. The device has a large mode (5.8 x 7.6 um) and ultra-low optical confinement ([] ~ 0.05%), allowing a 2-mm absorption length. The maximum photocurrent obtained was 250 mA (R = 0.8-A/W) at 1.55 um.
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Summary

We report the first high-current photodiode based on the slab-coupled optical waveguide concept. The device has a large mode (5.8 x 7.6 um) and ultra-low optical confinement ([] ~ 0.05%), allowing a 2-mm absorption length. The maximum photocurrent obtained was 250 mA (R = 0.8-A/W) at 1.55 um.

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Afterpulsing in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for 1.06um wavelength

Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these devices. For 30-um-diam, 1.06-um-wavelength InGaAsP/InP APDs operated at 290 K and 4 V overbias, we obtained a dominant trap lifetime of td=0.32 us, a trap energy of 0.11 eV, and a baseline dark count rate 245 kHz.
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Summary

We consider the phenomenon of afterpulsing in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in gated and free-running Geiger mode. An operational model of afterpulsing and other noise characteristics of APDs predicts the noise behavior observed in the free-running mode. We also use gated-mode data to investigate possible sources of afterpulsing in these...

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InGaAsP/InP quantum-well electrorefractive modulators with sub-volt V[pi]

Published in:
SPIE Vol. 5435, Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications VI, 12-16 April 2004, pp. 53-63.

Summary

Advanced analog-optical sensor, signal processing and communication systems could benefit significantly from wideband (DC to > 50 GHz) optical modulators having both low half-wave voltage (V[pi]) and low optical insertion loss. An important figure-of-merit for modulators used in analog applications is TMAX/V[pi], where TMAX is the optical transmission of the modulator when biased for maximum transmission. Candidate electro-optic materials for realizing these modulators include lithium niobate (LiNbO3), polymers, and semiconductors, each of which has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we report the development of 1.5-um-wavelength Mach-Zehnder modulators utilizing the electrorefractive effect in InGaAsP/InP symmetric, uncoupled semiconductor quantum-wells. Modulators with 1-cm-long, lumped-element electrodes are found to have a push-pull V[pi] of 0.9V (V[pi]L = 9 V-mm) and 18-dB fiber-to-fiber insertion loss (TMAX/V[pi] = 0.018). Fabry-Perot cutback measurements reveal a waveguide propagation loss of 7 dB/cm and a waveguide-to-fiber coupling loss of 5 dB/facet. The relatively high propagation loss results from a combination of below-bandedge absorption and scattering due to waveguide-sidewall roughness. Analyses show that most of the coupling loss can be eliminated though the use of monolithically integrated invertedtaper optical-mode converters, thereby allowing these modulators to exceed the performance of commercial LiNbO3 modulators (TMAX/V[pi] ~ 0.1). We also report the analog modulation characteristics of these modulators.
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Summary

Advanced analog-optical sensor, signal processing and communication systems could benefit significantly from wideband (DC to > 50 GHz) optical modulators having both low half-wave voltage (V[pi]) and low optical insertion loss. An important figure-of-merit for modulators used in analog applications is TMAX/V[pi], where TMAX is the optical transmission of the...

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All-Active InGaAsP-InP Optical Tapered-Amplifier 1 X N Power Splitters

Published in:
IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., Vol. 12, No. 8, August 2000, pp. 974-976.

Summary

All-active tapered-amplifier power splitters (TAPS) consisting of a single-mode input waveguide, which acts as a pre-amplifier, a two-dimensional (2-D) diffraction section, which amplifies the signal during the splitting process, and N single-mode output waveguides, which act as post-amplifiers, were fabricated in 1.3um InGaAsP quantum-well material. Gains in each output guide (power out of guide/input power) of greater than 10 dB with a uniformity of better than 0.5 dB from guide to guide were measured on a 1 x 8 TAPS device.
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Summary

All-active tapered-amplifier power splitters (TAPS) consisting of a single-mode input waveguide, which acts as a pre-amplifier, a two-dimensional (2-D) diffraction section, which amplifies the signal during the splitting process, and N single-mode output waveguides, which act as post-amplifiers, were fabricated in 1.3um InGaAsP quantum-well material. Gains in each output guide...

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