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GraphChallenge.org triangle counting performance [e-print]

Summary

The rise of graph analytic systems has created a need for new ways to measure and compare the capabilities of graph processing systems. The MIT/Amazon/IEEE Graph Challenge has been developed to provide a well-defined community venue for stimulating research and highlighting innovations in graph analysis software, hardware, algorithms, and systems. GraphChallenge.org provides a wide range of preparsed graph data sets, graph generators, mathematically defined graph algorithms, example serial implementations in a variety of languages, and specific metrics for measuring performance. The triangle counting component of GraphChallenge.org tests the performance of graph processing systems to count all the triangles in a graph and exercises key graph operations found in many graph algorithms. In 2017, 2018, and 2019 many triangle counting submissions were received from a wide range of authors and organizations. This paper presents a performance analysis of the best performers of these submissions. These submissions show that their state-of-the-art triangle counting execution time, Ttri, is a strong function of the number of edges in the graph, Ne, which improved significantly from 2017 (Ttri \approx (Ne/10^8)^4=3) to 2018 (Ttri \approx Ne/10^9) and remained comparable from 2018 to 2019. Graph Challenge provides a clear picture of current graph analysis systems and underscores the need for new innovations to achieve high performance on very large graphs
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Summary

The rise of graph analytic systems has created a need for new ways to measure and compare the capabilities of graph processing systems. The MIT/Amazon/IEEE Graph Challenge has been developed to provide a well-defined community venue for stimulating research and highlighting innovations in graph analysis software, hardware, algorithms, and systems...

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AI enabling technologies: a survey

Summary

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the opportunity to revolutionize the way the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) address the challenges of evolving threats, data deluge, and rapid courses of action. Developing an end-to-end artificial intelligence system involves parallel development of different pieces that must work together in order to provide capabilities that can be used by decision makers, warfighters and analysts. These pieces include data collection, data conditioning, algorithms, computing, robust artificial intelligence, and human-machine teaming. While much of the popular press today surrounds advances in algorithms and computing, most modern AI systems leverage advances across numerous different fields. Further, while certain components may not be as visible to end-users as others, our experience has shown that each of these interrelated components play a major role in the success or failure of an AI system. This article is meant to highlight many of these technologies that are involved in an end-to-end AI system. The goal of this article is to provide readers with an overview of terminology, technical details and recent highlights from academia, industry and government. Where possible, we indicate relevant resources that can be used for further reading and understanding.
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Summary

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the opportunity to revolutionize the way the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) address the challenges of evolving threats, data deluge, and rapid courses of action. Developing an end-to-end artificial intelligence system involves parallel development of different pieces that must work together...

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Artificial intelligence: short history, present developments, and future outlook, final report

Summary

The Director's Office at MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) requested a comprehensive study on artificial intelligence (AI) focusing on present applications and future science and technology (S&T) opportunities in the Cyber Security and Information Sciences Division (Division 5). This report elaborates on the main results from the study. Since the AI field is evolving so rapidly, the study scope was to look at the recent past and ongoing developments to lead to a set of findings and recommendations. It was important to begin with a short AI history and a lay-of-the-land on representative developments across the Department of Defense (DoD), intelligence communities (IC), and Homeland Security. These areas are addressed in more detail within the report. A main deliverable from the study was to formulate an end-to-end AI canonical architecture that was suitable for a range of applications. The AI canonical architecture, formulated in the study, serves as the guiding framework for all the sections in this report. Even though the study primarily focused on cyber security and information sciences, the enabling technologies are broadly applicable to many other areas. Therefore, we dedicate a full section on enabling technologies in Section 3. The discussion on enabling technologies helps the reader clarify the distinction among AI, machine learning algorithms, and specific techniques to make an end-to-end AI system viable. In order to understand what is the lay-of-the-land in AI, study participants performed a fairly wide reach within MIT LL and external to the Laboratory (government, commercial companies, defense industrial base, peers, academia, and AI centers). In addition to the study participants (shown in the next section under acknowledgements), we also assembled an internal review team (IRT). The IRT was extremely helpful in providing feedback and in helping with the formulation of the study briefings, as we transitioned from datagathering mode to the study synthesis. The format followed throughout the study was to highlight relevant content that substantiates the study findings, and identify a set of recommendations. An important finding is the significant AI investment by the so-called "big 6" commercial companies. These major commercial companies are Google, Amazon, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, and IBM. They dominate in the AI ecosystem research and development (R&D) investments within the U.S. According to a recent McKinsey Global Institute report, cumulative R&D investment in AI amounts to about $30 billion per year. This amount is substantially higher than the R&D investment within the DoD, IC, and Homeland Security. Therefore, the DoD will need to be very strategic about investing where needed, while at the same time leveraging the technologies already developed and available from a wide range of commercial applications. As we will discuss in Section 1 as part of the AI history, MIT LL has been instrumental in developing advanced AI capabilities. For example, MIT LL has a long history in the development of human language technologies (HLT) by successfully applying machine learning algorithms to difficult problems in speech recognition, machine translation, and speech understanding. Section 4 elaborates on prior applications of these technologies, as well as newer applications in the context of multi-modalities (e.g., speech, text, images, and video). An end-to-end AI system is very well suited to enhancing the capabilities of human language analysis. Section 5 discusses AI's nascent role in cyber security. There have been cases where AI has already provided important benefits. However, much more research is needed in both the application of AI to cyber security and the associated vulnerability to the so-called adversarial AI. Adversarial AI is an area very critical to the DoD, IC, and Homeland Security, where malicious adversaries can disrupt AI systems and make them untrusted in operational environments. This report concludes with specific recommendations by formulating the way forward for Division 5 and a discussion of S&T challenges and opportunities. The S&T challenges and opportunities are centered on the key elements of the AI canonical architecture to strengthen the AI capabilities across the DoD, IC, and Homeland Security in support of national security.
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Summary

The Director's Office at MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) requested a comprehensive study on artificial intelligence (AI) focusing on present applications and future science and technology (S&T) opportunities in the Cyber Security and Information Sciences Division (Division 5). This report elaborates on the main results from the study. Since the...

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Simulation approach to sensor placement using Unity3D

Summary

3D game simulation engines have demonstrated utility in the areas of training, scientific analysis, and knowledge solicitation. This paper will make the case for the use of 3D game simulation engines in the field of sensor placement optimization. Our study used a series of parallel simulations in the Unity3D simulation framework to answer the questions: how many sensors of various modalities are required and where they should be placed to meet a desired threat detection threshold? The result is a framework that not only answers this sensor placement question, but can be easily expanded to differing optimization criteria as well as answer how a particular configuration responds to differing crowd flows or informed/non-informed adversaries. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of this framework by running parallel instances on a supercomputing grid and illustrate the processing speed gained.
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Summary

3D game simulation engines have demonstrated utility in the areas of training, scientific analysis, and knowledge solicitation. This paper will make the case for the use of 3D game simulation engines in the field of sensor placement optimization. Our study used a series of parallel simulations in the Unity3D simulation...

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SIAM data mining "brings it" to annual meeting

Summary

The Data Mining Activity Group is one of SIAM's most vibrant and dynamic activity groups. To better share our enthusiasm for data mining with the broader SIAM community, our activity group organized six minisymposia at the 2016 Annual Meeting. These minisymposia included 48 talks organized by 11 SIAM members.
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Summary

The Data Mining Activity Group is one of SIAM's most vibrant and dynamic activity groups. To better share our enthusiasm for data mining with the broader SIAM community, our activity group organized six minisymposia at the 2016 Annual Meeting. These minisymposia included 48 talks organized by 11 SIAM members.

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Very large graphs for information extraction (VLG) - detection and inference in the presence of uncertainty

Summary

In numerous application domains relevant to the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community, data of interest take the form of entities and the relationships between them, and these data are commonly represented as graphs. Under the Very Large Graphs for Information Extraction effort--a one year proof-of-concept study--MIT LL developed novel techniques for anomalous subgraph detection, building on tools in the signal processing research literature. This report documents the technical results of this effort. Two datasets--a snapshot of Thompson Reuters' Web of Science database and a stream of web proxy logs--were parsed, and graphs were constructed from the raw data. From the phenomena in these datasets, several algorithms were developed to model the dynamic graph behavior, including a preferential attachment mechanism with memory, a streaming filter to model a graph as a weighted average of its past connections, and a generalized linear model for graphs where connection probabilities are determined by additional side information or metadata. A set of metrics was also constructed to facilitate comparison of techniques. The study culminated in a demonstration of the algorithms on the datasets of interest, in addition to simulated data. Performance in terms of detection, estimation, and computational burden was measured according to the metrics. Among the highlights of this demonstration were the detection of emerging coauthor clusters in the Web of Science data, detection of botnet activity in the web proxy data after 15 minutes (which took 10 days to detect using state-of-the-practice techniques), and demonstration of the core algorithm on a simulated 1-billion-vertex graph using a commodity computing cluster.
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Summary

In numerous application domains relevant to the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community, data of interest take the form of entities and the relationships between them, and these data are commonly represented as graphs. Under the Very Large Graphs for Information Extraction effort--a one year proof-of-concept study--MIT LL developed...

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