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Preliminary weather information gap analysis for UAS operations, revision 1

Date:
November 2, 2017
Published in:
Project Report ATC-437-REV-1, MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Type:
Project Report
Topic:

Summary

Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) are rapidly increasing. For example, 2017 has seen dramatically increased low altitude UAS usage for disaster relief and by first responders. The ability to carry out these operations, however, can be strongly impacted by adverse weather conditions. This report documents a preliminary quick-look identification and assessment of gaps in current weather decision support for UAS operations. An initial set of surveys and interviews with UAS operators identified 12 major gaps. These gaps were then prioritized based on the importance of the weather phenomena to UAS operations and the current availability of adequate weather information to UAS operators. Low altitude UAS operations are of particular concern. The lack of observations of ceiling, visibility, and winds near most low altitude UAS operational locations causes the validation of numerical weather forecasts of weather conditions for those locations to be the highest priority. Hazardous weather alerting for convective activity and strong surface winds are a major concern for UAS operations that could be addressed in part by access to existing FAA real time conventional aircraft weather products.
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Summary

Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) are rapidly increasing. For example, 2017 has seen dramatically increased low altitude UAS usage for disaster relief and by first responders. The ability to carry out these operations, however, can be strongly impacted by adverse weather conditions. This report...
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Bioelectronic Measurement and Feedback Control of Molecules in Living Cells(1.81 MB)

Date:
October 2, 2017
Published in:
Nature Scientific Reports, vol. 7
Type:
Journal Article
Topic:

Summary

We describe an electrochemical measurement technique that enables bioelectronic measurements of reporter proteins in living cells as an alternative to traditional optical fluorescence. Using electronically programmable microfluidics, the measurement is in turn used to control the concentration of an inducer input that regulates production of the protein from a genetic promoter. The resulting bioelectronic and microfluidic negative-feedback loop then serves to regulate the concentration of the protein in the cell. We show measurements wherein a user-programmable set-point precisely alters the protein concentration in the cell with feedback-loop parameters affecting the dynamics of the closed-loop response in a predictable fashion. Our work does not require expensive optical fluorescence measurement techniques that are prone to toxicity in chronic settings, sophisticated time-lapse microscopy, or bulky/expensive chemo-stat instrumentation for dynamic measurement and control of biomolecules in cells. Therefore, it may be useful in creating a: cheap, portable, chronic, dynamic, and precise all-electronic alternative for measurement and control of molecules in living cells.
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Summary

We describe an electrochemical measurement technique that enables bioelectronic measurements of reporter proteins in living cells as an alternative to traditional optical fluorescence. Using electronically programmable microfluidics, the measurement is in turn used to control the concentration of an inducer input that regulates production of the protein from a genetic...
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Wind Information Requirements for NextGen Operations Phase 5 Report(13.64 MB)

Date:
August 22, 2017
Published in:
Project Report ATC-439, MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Type:
Project Report
Topic:

Summary

NextGen applications with time-based control elements, such as required time of arrival (RTA) at a meter fix under 4D trajectory-based operations (4D-TBO)/time of arrival control (TOAC) procedures or assigned spacing goal between aircraft under Interval Management (IM) procedures, are subject to the quality of the atmospheric forecast utilized by participating aircraft. The work described in this report summarizes the major activities conducted in the current phase of this program which builds upon prior work.
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Summary

NextGen applications with time-based control elements, such as required time of arrival (RTA) at a meter fix under 4D trajectory-based operations (4D-TBO)/time of arrival control (TOAC) procedures or assigned spacing goal between aircraft under Interval Management (IM) procedures, are subject to the quality of the atmospheric forecast utilized by participating...
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Wind information requirements for NextGen operations, phase 5 report

Date:
August 22, 2017
Published in:
Project Report ATC-439, MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Type:
Project Report

Summary

NextGen applications with time-based control elements, such as required time of arrival (RTA) at a meter fix under 4D trajectory-based operations (4D-TBO)/time of arrival control (TOAC) procedures or assigned spacing goal between aircraft under Interval Management (IM) procedures, are subject to the quality of the atmospheric forecast utilized by participating aircraft. The work described in this report summarizes the major activities conducted in the current phase of this program which builds upon prior work. The major objectives were: 1. Support RTCA Special Committee-206 Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link Services and co-chair a sub-group responsible for developing the document "Guidance for Data Linking Forecast and Real-Time Wind Information to Aircraft." 2. Analyze the performance of publicly available forecast as compared to in-situ reported atmospheric conditions, specifically comparing Global Forecast System (GFS) and High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) forecast data to recorded in-flight weather Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS) data. 3. Analyze current and future Flight Management Systems (FMSs) to conduct operations at significantly lower altitudes than previous studies. 4. Evaluate potential sources of aircraft-derived winds to better support 4D-TBO activities. 5. Provide recommendations for high-value future work.
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Summary

NextGen applications with time-based control elements, such as required time of arrival (RTA) at a meter fix under 4D trajectory-based operations (4D-TBO)/time of arrival control (TOAC) procedures or assigned spacing goal between aircraft under Interval Management (IM) procedures, are subject to the quality of the atmospheric forecast utilized by participating...
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Fluidic Microoptics with Adjustable Focusing and Beam Steering for Single Cell Optogenetic

Date:
July 10, 2017
Published in:
Optics Express, vol. 25, issue 14
Type:
Journal Article
Topic:

Summary

Electrically controlled micron-scale liquid lenses have been designed, fabricated and demonstrated, that provide both adjustable focusing and beam steering, with the goal of applying them to optogenetic in vivo mapping of brain activity with single cell resolution. The liquid lens is formed by the interface between two immiscible liquids which are contained in a conically tapered lens cavity etched into a fused silica substrate. Interdigitated electrodes have been patterned along the sidewall of the taper to control the liquid lens curvature and tilt. Microlenses with apertures ranging in size from 30 to 80 μm were fabricated and tunable focusing ranging from 0.25 to 3 mm and beam steering of ± 1 degree have been demonstrated.
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Summary

Electrically controlled micron-scale liquid lenses have been designed, fabricated and demonstrated, that provide both adjustable focusing and beam steering, with the goal of applying them to optogenetic in vivo mapping of brain activity with single cell resolution. The liquid lens is formed by the interface between two immiscible liquids which...
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Open-Source, Community-Driven Microfluidics with Metafluidics

Summary

Microfluidic devices have the potential to automate and miniaturize biological experiments, but open-source sharing of device designs has lagged behind sharing of other resources such as software. Synthetic biologists have used microfluidics for DNA assembly, cell-free expression, and cell culture, but a combination of expense, device complexity, and reliance on custom set-ups hampers their widespread adoption. We present Metafluidics, an open-source, community-driven repository that hosts digital design files, assembly specifications, and open-source software to enable users to build, configure, and operate a microfluidic device. We use Metafluidics to share designs and fabrication instructions for both a microfluidic ring-mixer device and a 32-channel tabletop microfluidic controller. This device and controller are applied to build genetic circuits using standard DNA assembly methods including ligation, Gateway, Gibson, and Golden Gate. Metafluidics is intended to enable a broad community of engineers, DIY enthusiasts, and other nontraditional participants with limited fabrication skills to contribute to microfluidic research.
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Summary

Microfluidic devices have the potential to automate and miniaturize biological experiments, but open-source sharing of device designs has lagged behind sharing of other resources such as software. Synthetic biologists have used microfluidics for DNA assembly, cell-free expression, and cell culture, but a combination of expense, device complexity, and reliance on...
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Re-engineering Artificial Muscle with Microhydraulics

Date:
June 5, 2017
Published in:
Nature Microsystems & Nanoengineering, vol. 3
Type:
Journal Article
Topic:

Summary

We introduce a new type of actuator, the microhydraulic stepping actuator (MSA), which borrows design and operational concepts from biological muscle and stepper motors. MSAs offer a unique combination of power, efficiency, and scalability not easily achievable on the microscale. The actuator works by integrating surface tension forces produced by electrowetting acting on scaled droplets along the length of a thin ribbon. Like muscle, MSAs have liquid and solid functional components and can displace a large
fraction of their length. The 100 μm pitch MSA presented here already has an output power density of over 200 W kg− 1, rivaling the most powerful biological muscles, due to the scaling of surface tension forces, MSA’s power density grows quadratically as its dimensions are reduced.
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Summary

We introduce a new type of actuator, the microhydraulic stepping actuator (MSA), which borrows design and operational concepts from biological muscle and stepper motors. MSAs offer a unique combination of power, efficiency, and scalability not easily achievable on the microscale. The actuator works by integrating surface tension forces produced by...
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Report on the 2016 CoSPA and Traffic Flow Impact Operational Demonstration(4.64 MB)

Date:
June 1, 2017
Published in:
Project Report ATC-433, MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Type:
Project Report
Topic:

Summary

The 2016 Storm Prediction for Aviation (CoSPA) Demonstration was conducted from 1 June to 31 October 2016. As part of the demonstration, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities and commercial airlines were visited by MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) observers, including initial training visits. Targeted field observations were conducted to gather information on how the CoSPA weather forecast was used in operations, to obtain feedback on new capabilities, and to collect comments for improvement.
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Summary

The 2016 Storm Prediction for Aviation (CoSPA) Demonstration was conducted from 1 June to 31 October 2016. As part of the demonstration, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities and commercial airlines were visited by MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) observers, including initial training visits. Targeted field observations were conducted to gather...
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Raman Detection of a Single Airborne Aerosol Particles of Isovanillin(3.09 MB)

Date:
May 24, 2017
Published in:
AIP Advances, vol. 7, no. 5
Type:
Journal Article

Summary

Raman spectroscopy of trapped single aerosol particles has been reported previously. However, detection of single aerosol particles via Raman spectroscopy in a flowing system has not been yet reported. In this paper, we describe the first detection of single 3 um flowing airborne aerosol particles flowing through a Raman system, which is a simplified version of the previously reported system with a 532-nm, 10W cw double-pass laser, 532-nm isolator, and double-sided collection optics. The current system has single-pass laser, no 532-nm isolator, and single-sided collection optics. Previous Raman detection of single aerosol particles has been made using trapped particles.
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Summary

Raman spectroscopy of trapped single aerosol particles has been reported previously. However, detection of single aerosol particles via Raman spectroscopy in a flowing system has not been yet reported. In this paper, we describe the first detection of single 3 um flowing airborne aerosol particles flowing through a Raman system,...
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Wind information requirements for NextGen applications phase 4 final report(5.87 MB)

Date:
March 6, 2017
Published in:
Project Report ATC-431, MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Type:
Project Report
Topic:

Summary

Many NextGen applications depend on access to high accuracy wind data due to time-based control elements, such as required time of arrival at a meter fix under 4D-Trajectory-Based Operations/Time of Arrival Control procedures or compliance to an assigned spacing goal between aircraft under Interval Management procedures. The work described in this report summarizes the activities conducted in FY15, which builds upon prior work.
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Summary

Many NextGen applications depend on access to high accuracy wind data due to time-based control elements, such as required time of arrival at a meter fix under 4D-Trajectory-Based Operations/Time of Arrival Control procedures or compliance to an assigned spacing goal between aircraft under Interval Management procedures. The work described in...
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